Overview and Test Objectives
Field 092: Reading Specialist
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
|Time||2 hours 30 minutes*|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Meaning and Communication||001–005||16%|
|II||Genres and Craft of Literature and Language||006–009||14%|
|III||Skills and Processes||010–014||16%|
|VI||Professional, Program, and Curriculum Development||025–030||20%|
Subarea I—MEANING AND COMMUNICATION
Objective 001—Understand the constructive, dynamic process of reading.
- describing the interaction among the reader's existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation
- distinguishing among the phonemic, morphemic, semantic, and pragmatic systems of language and identifying their relationships to the reading process
- analyzing the social, cultural, and dynamic nature of language
Objective 002—Recognize the various uses of language.
- identifying differences in language use in professional, personal, and community environments
- analyzing texts to determine style, voice, and language choices and to evaluate their appropriateness for the context, purpose, and audience
- assessing how language choices may affect people
Objective 003—Understand the processes of language development and reading acquisition.
- applying concepts of emergent literacy to describe a student's development as a reader
- recognizing the stages of literacy development on a continuum (e.g., phonemic awareness, accuracy and fluency, self-monitoring and self-correction strategies)
- analyzing major theories of language development, cognition, and learning
- describing experiences that support literacy
- recognizing the value of responding personally, analytically, and critically to a variety of written texts
- identifying past and present literacy leaders and describing their contributions to the knowledge base
Objective 004—Analyze the integrated nature of the English language arts.
- identifying and comparing individual English language arts
- recognizing the value of students integrating their use of reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing (e.g., mutual reinforcement of complementary skills, building on the students' authentic uses of language)
- describing the benefits of students acting in all aspects of literacy (e.g., as readers, writers, responders)
Objective 005—Demonstrate knowledge of the effects of various factors on language development, reading acquisition, and the promotion of literacy.
- describing the effects of factors (e.g., emotional, perceptual, environmental) on a student's learning, language development, and reading acquisition
- recognizing the influence of culture and language on a student's instructional needs
- understanding how differences among learners influence their literacy development
- analyzing the reciprocal relationship between language, culture, and individual identity
- determining how contextual factors in the classroom can influence students' learning and reading (e.g., grouping procedures, types of reading tasks, assessment)
Subarea II—GENRES AND CRAFT OF LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE
Objective 006—Demonstrate an understanding of literature written for students.
- recognizing classic and contemporary children's and young adults' literature, easy-reading fiction, and nonfiction at appropriate levels
- analyzing key issues and recurring themes in literature in a variety of cultural contexts
- understanding the importance of respecting students' reading choices
- applying ways to cultivate students' enthusiasm for reading
Objective 007—Apply knowledge of methods for using literature in reading instruction.
- applying ways to use oral, visual, and written texts to address issues and problems in communities beyond the classroom
- describing how to help students investigate examples of distortion and stereotypes through literature and other texts
- understanding how to help students draw parallels and contrasts among varied ideas, concepts, and perspectives in multiple texts
- describing how to help students identify differing views presented in text, support an opinion, and base conclusions on that opinion
Objective 008—Understand characteristics of various literary genres.
- describing various narrative genres and analyzing how they are used to convey ideas and perspectives
- analyzing how characteristics of various informational genres and elements of expository text structure are used to convey ideas
- determining how textual aids have been used to convey meaning in a specific passage
Objective 009—Understand the appropriate use of mechanics and craft to convey meaning in the English language arts.
- using mechanics (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation, figurative and descriptive language) to facilitate understanding in all of the language arts
- analyzing how aspects of the craft of the speaker, writer, and illustrator are used to formulate and express ideas artistically
Subarea III—SKILLS AND PROCESSES
Objective 010—Demonstrate knowledge of ways to create a literate environment in the classroom.
- identifying methods teachers can use to promote learners' motivation to read independently for information, pleasure, and personal growth
- analyzing ways texts can be used to stimulate students' interest, promote their reading growth, and foster their appreciation for the written word
- describing ways to give students opportunities to respond creatively and personally to literature
- specifying how instructional and information technologies can be used to support literacy
Objective 011—Apply knowledge of the developmental nature of the language arts.
- recognizing the stages of oral language (listening and speaking), reading, writing, and spelling development
- recognizing why students progress through stages of literacy at different rates
- identifying the processes of second language acquisition and the implications for developing oral language, reading, and writing proficiency
- describing the nature of the writing process
- identifying strategies for teaching each step of the writing process
Objective 012—Understand methods for promoting literacy as a lifelong skill.
- prompting learners to select from a variety of written materials, read extended texts, and read for authentic purposes
- helping students recognize how the craft of literacy expression can enhance their understanding and appreciation of varied texts
- analyzing how the techniques and devices of expression influence a reader's, listener's, or viewer's responses
- describing methods for including parents, guardians, and surrogates as partners in the literacy development of their children
- identifying ways for teachers to model reading and writing as valuable, lifelong activities
Objective 013—Apply knowledge of reading comprehension strategies.
- describing word identification strategies (e.g., phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, prior knowledge)
- analyzing the relationships among print-sound code, word identification and meaning, fluency, and comprehension
- identifying the characteristics of fluent readers
- analyzing strategies that promote comprehension (e.g., modeling a variety of questions, connecting prior knowledge with new information)
- identifying multiple, metacognitive fix-up strategies for monitoring comprehension
Objective 014—Apply knowledge of various study strategies.
- identifying uses of print, nonprint, and electronic reference sources
- analyzing how reading rate should vary depending on the purpose and difficulty of the material
- identifying techniques for managing time, organizing and recalling information, and test taking
- analyzing the process of learning through genuine inquiry
- specifying ways to guide students as they set their own goals, select resources, investigate topics, organize and interpret data, draw inferences, and present their conclusions
Objective 015—Apply literacy instruction theories.
- identifying developmentally appropriate instructional practices that are based on learning theory and are supported by current research
- analyzing approaches and strategies that represent principles of authentic instruction (e.g., higher-order thinking, connections to the world beyond the classroom)
- evaluating ways to help students apply individual, shared, and academic standards according to the purpose of the communication context
- analyzing the use of various methodologies to teach reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing
Objective 016—Apply methods for enhancing students' reading comprehension.
- describing appropriate uses of direct instruction
- determining when and how to use multiple comprehension strategies in a variety of texts
- ways to help students use various aspects of text (e.g., genres, text structure, conventions of written English) to gain comprehension
- understanding how to help students use strategies for monitoring their own comprehension
- describing the monitoring and fix-up strategies students can use to overcome difficulties when constructing and conveying meaning
Objective 017—Apply methods for enhancing students' oral communication.
- applying knowledge of methods used to teach students effective listening strategies and elements of effective speaking
- identifying effective ways to help students select and use various methods of interpersonal, small-group, and public discourse to explore an idea
Objective 018—Apply methods for enhancing students' written communication.
- applying knowledge of teaching methods that help students use the writing process (i.e., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing) to construct texts for multiple purposes in a variety of genres
- identifying ways to guide students to refine their spelling knowledge through reading and writing
Objective 019—Apply methods for promoting vocabulary development.
- determining how to help students use graphophonemic, syntactic, and semantic relationships (e.g., letter/sound correspondence, phonemic awareness, structural analysis, context) to identify unfamiliar words
- applying methods for helping students use multiple strategies to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts
- assessing the effectiveness of techniques for promoting students' independent vocabulary acquisition
Objective 020—Apply methods for establishing a learning environment that supports the literacy development of all students.
- identifying ways to empower learners who have a range of capacities, abilities, multiple intelligences, first languages, and learning styles
- analyzing strategies for promoting the literacy skills of students who are gifted
- evaluating methods for addressing the strengths and needs of students with learning disabilities
- identifying methods for creating an inclusionary environment
Objective 021—Apply knowledge of current principles of reading assessment.
- demonstrating an understanding of basic characteristics of assessment methods and instruments
- articulating assessment practices based on learning theories and research in literacy
- describing ways to align assessment practices with literacy goals and curriculum
- analyzing how students' reading can be evaluated based on results from a balance of formal and informal assessments
Objective 022—Analyze ways to implement literacy assessment.
- specifying ways to evaluate students' ability to read with accuracy and fluency, to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts, and to construct meaning from a variety of texts
- describing ways to assess students' use of monitoring and fix-up strategies to construct and convey meaning
- identifying methods for evaluating students' print and nonprint texts using appropriate assessments, including state assessments, that represent the Michigan English Language Arts Content Standards and Benchmarks
Objective 023—Understand the appropriate uses of assessment.
- evaluating uses of classroom assessment techniques (e.g., rubrics, checklists, portfolios) to plan for and support instruction
- analyzing ways to select, create, and correctly interpret results of developmentally appropriate tools and various measurements used for assessment and evaluation
- describing the use of state and classroom assessments for formative and summative evaluation purposes
- describing methods for communicating effectively with parents, guardians, surrogates, colleagues, and students about the learners' progress and development
Objective 024—Apply knowledge of the uses of self-assessment.
- analyzing methods for teaching students to set goals and engage in self-reflection and assessment
- describing ways to help students document and evaluate the development of their communication abilities
- applying strategies to evaluate students' abilities to perform these tasks at their developmental levels
- identifying methods for evaluating students' collections of personal work and the critical standards they use to judge the merit and aesthetic qualities of each selection
Subarea VI—PROFESSIONAL, PROGRAM, AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Objective 025—Analyze methods for assisting students with reading difficulties.
- distinguishing the nature and causes of reading disabilities
- articulating principles for remediating reading difficulties
- analyzing the instructional implications of research dealing with students with learning/reading disabilities
- identifying individualized and group interventions for students in greatest need or at low proficiency levels
- recognizing appropriate ways to assist with the development of individualized education plans for students with severe learning problems related to literacy
Objective 026—Apply knowledge of professional practices related to students and others.
- specifying ways to demonstrate respect for the contributions, abilities, and languages of all learners
- describing how to help students understand their own and others' cultures and languages
- identifying appropriate strategies for engaging parents, guardians, and surrogates as collaborators in promoting and sustaining literacy development
- describing effective approaches to communicating with administrators, staff, and the community concerning practices, assessment, and data
- identifying effective methods for working with the community to achieve literacy goals
Objective 027—Understand methods for promoting professional growth.
- identifying and assessing the benefits of engaging in reflective practice emphasizing inquiry-based teaching
- describing purposes for reading professional journals and publications
- identifying benefits of participating in professional organizations that promote literacy (e.g., International Reading Association [IRA], National Council of Teachers of English [NCTE])
- analyzing ways to participate in professional discourse
- describing the benefits of taking informed stands on literacy issues, making presentations at meetings and conferences, and writing for publication
Objective 028—Apply knowledge of methods for creating professional development programs for reading teachers and paraprofessionals.
- identifying methods for implementing professional development programs that emphasize the interaction of prior knowledge, experience, and the school context
- analyzing methods for promoting collegiality with literacy professionals in discussions and consultations about learners
- describing approaches to supervising, observing, and supporting reading teachers and paraprofessionals
- identifying appropriate methods for evaluating reading teachers' and paraprofessionals' interactions with students and providing feedback on their performance
- analyzing the use of multiple indicators to evaluate professional growth
Objective 029—Analyze the role of reading specialists in curriculum development.
- articulating the process and benefits of participating in curriculum development, alignment, and evaluation
- recognizing the importance of being sensitive to school factors (e.g., class size, resources, community concerns)
- applying strategies for coordinating and supporting all services associated with reading programs (e.g., budgeting, needs assessment, grant writing)
- identifying programs with federal, state, and local support that are designed to help students with reading difficulties
- analyzing the use of multiple indicators to determine curriculum effectiveness
Objective 030—Apply knowledge of literacy research.
- analyzing literacy research methodologies (e.g., ethnographic, descriptive, experimental)
- analyzing the findings of literacy research
- describing methods and benefits of sharing interpretations of research findings with colleagues and the community
- identifying appropriate applications of literacy research in a variety of contexts