Study Guide

Field 092: Reading Specialist
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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MEANING AND COMMUNICATION

Objective 001
Understand the constructive, dynamic process of reading.

1. It would be most effective for a student to use the semantic system of language in order to determine:

  1. whether the word trunk refers to a compartment in an automobile or a tree.
  2. if the word contemplate can take the suffix -able.
  3. whether the final letters of the word dough are silent or represent the sound of f.
  4. if the word slight rhymes with the word write.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 003
Understand the processes of language development and reading acquisition.

2. A teacher notices that a kindergarten student is beginning to recognize the difference between a letter and a word. This awareness most typically indicates that the student is developing an understanding of:

  1. the print-sound code.
  2. word identification.
  3. print concepts.
  4. syllabication.
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 004
Analyze the integrated nature of the English language arts.

3. A second-grade teacher gives students opportunities to use materials such as markers, paper, and crayons to create artistic responses to the stories and books they read. Encouraging students to use visual representations as a response to literature benefits students primarily by helping them:

  1. develop their talents while they are learning academic content.
  2. clarify and express the meaning of the texts they read.
  3. find and explore the connections between art and literature.
  4. further their understanding of the creative process.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

GENRES AND CRAFT OF LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE

Objective 007
Apply knowledge of methods for using literature in reading instruction.

4. Use the word list below written by a high school teacher to answer the question that follows.

fascist
brute
wholesome
cadaverous
tidiness
botched
dogmatic
upstanding
altruistic

A high school teacher gives each student in her class a copy of a short story to read. The teacher writes the words shown above on an overhead projector and asks students to note how these words are used in the story. This instructional activity would be most effective as a method for helping the students:

  1. determine whether the writer has followed the structure of a particular genre.
  2. recognize that a reader's perceptions can be influenced by the writer's use of emotionally charged language.
  3. understand that writers will typically use a specific style of language to create a well-crafted narrative.
  4. decide whether a reader will feel empathy for the primary character in the story.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 008
Understand characteristics of various literary genres.

5. Which of the following story elements would middle school students be more likely to find in contemporary realistic fiction than in any other narrative genres?

  1. heroism and admirable behavior demonstrated by primary characters
  2. plots that feature suspense or mystery
  3. experiences and problems that could occur in their own lives
  4. settings with unusual or exotic qualities
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 009
Understand the appropriate use of mechanics and craft to convey meaning in the English language arts.

6. After discussing the differences between facts and opinions, a fifth-grade teacher gives students copies of several newspaper articles that have no headlines or bylines. The teacher assigns students to groups and asks them to distinguish the articles that are news stories from those that are editorials. To complete this assignment successfully, it will be most important for the students to recognize:

  1. if the writer has expertise in the field discussed in the article.
  2. when a writer has stated a position and offered support for it.
  3. topics that can only be addressed in a factual and objective manner.
  4. writing that presents information with sufficient clarity.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

SKILLS AND PROCESSES

Objective 010
Demonstrate knowledge of ways to create a literate environment in the classroom.

7. A third-grade teacher wants students to use the computers in his classroom to strengthen their writing skills. Which of the following computer applications would be most effective for students to use to promote their writing fluency?

  1. the editing tools of a word-processing program
  2. the reference materials in a CD-ROM encyclopedia
  3. the drills created by a spelling software program
  4. the browser program used to search the Internet
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 012
Understand methods for promoting literacy as a lifelong skill.

8. An elementary school reading specialist is asked to submit an article for a school newsletter offering suggestions that will involve parents, guardians, and surrogates in the literacy learning of their children. The most effective suggestions the reading teacher could make would be those that:

  1. address the reading standards and benchmarks that have been set for children at different grade levels.
  2. support the integration of reading activities into the content areas.
  3. promote the use of everyday materials and activities to make literacy a regular part of family life.
  4. reflect the findings of current research into literacy development.
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 013
Apply knowledge of reading comprehension strategies.

9. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the relationship among word identification, fluency, and reading comprehension?

  1. When students have a clear purpose for their reading, they can more readily identify the information that they need to find in a text.
  2. When students can use syllabi-cation to determine the pronun-ciation of unfamiliar words, they are more likely to grasp the broader concepts of paragraphs they read.
  3. When students read from one word to the next at a slow pace, it is more difficult for them to make use of multiple cues to determine the meaning of a text.
  4. When students are not familiar with the organization of a text, they must construct meaning based on their knowledge of individual words.
Answer
Correct Response: C.

INSTRUCTION

Objective 015
Apply literacy instruction theories.

10. Following a classroom visit from a local artist, a fourth-grade teacher works with students to help them write individual thank-you notes they can send to their guest. The context of this writing activity is effective for promoting the student's literacy development primarily because it gives them:

  1. an opportunity to express their opinions.
  2. a task that is developmentally appropriate.
  3. a way to demonstrate their creativity.
  4. a real-world purpose for their writing.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 017
Apply methods for enhancing students' oral communication.

11. Small groups of students in a fourth-grade class will be using the brainstorming process to develop ideas for an inquiry topic. To promote the most productive discussions, which of the following practices should the teacher emphasize?

  1. No one can make any changes to another students' ideas.
  2. All ideas will be accepted without criticism or evaluation.
  3. No one should offer ideas that are irresponsible or unworkable.
  4. All students will be allowed to make at least two suggestions.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 018
Apply methods for enhancing students' written communication.

12. Which of the following statements made by a teacher would likely promote the students' most active and effective use of the drafting and revising steps in the writing process?

  1. If you think your writing is ready to be published, there can be no spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors in the final version.
  2. When you state a position in your work, you must include support for that position in your writing.
  3. If you need to find a better way to express your ideas, there is nothing wrong with making changes or starting over.
  4. When people read and evaluate your writing, you are not obligated to make any of the changes they might suggest.
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 020
Apply methods for establishing a learning environment that supports the literacy development of all students.

13. A student with a language-based learning disability who has trouble understanding words, sentences, or paragraphs is likely to benefit most significantly from reading instruction that emphasizes:

  1. broad exposure to a wide range of reading materials.
  2. repetitive activities based on high-frequency, irregular words.
  3. daily practice of skills with the use of a computer program.
  4. direct, explicit instruction during teacher-student interactions.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

ASSESSMENT

Objective 022
Analyze ways to implement literacy assessment.

14. Read the excerpt below from a first-grade teacher's conversation with a reading group; then answer the question that follows.

Teacher: So, here's the front cover of our book. What sorts of things do you see on this front cover?

Student W: A boat with a big sail.

Teacher: Yes, I see that right there.

Student X: And there's a net with a bunch of fish.

Teacher: You're right; those are fish. Do you see anything else?

Student Y: (points) That's the title.

Teacher: Can you read the title?

Student Z: It's called One Week at Sea.

Teacher: Terrific. Now, tell me what you think this book will be about. Do you have any ideas?

As an assessment method, the teacher's questions will elicit the most infor-mation about the students' ability to use which of the following skills to construct meaning?

  1. using context
  2. predicting
  3. generating questions
  4. summarizing
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 024
Apply knowledge of the uses of self-assessment.

15. Use the excerpt below from an eighth grader's dialogue journal to answer the question that follows.

October 7

I've read another chapter in my book, and it's getting easier for me. At first I didn't get all the historical stuff. I got a social studies book from a 7th grader and read about the time when this story is happening.

Teacher's response:

Which of the following teacher responses to the student's entry would best help the student use the journal to engage in self-reflection and assessment?

  1. Getting the textbook is certainly one good way to better understand the story. Have you ever used any other ways to get more information about a topic?
  2. I know historical fiction can be very challenging, but I know that you are the sort of student who appreciates a good story, no matter what time period it is set in.
  3. While a social studies book might have some information, encyclopedias are frequently the best source for the historical information that you needed.
  4. It sounds like you have a book that is written at your frustration reading level. Would you like to know more about how to select reading material that matches your skills?
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 023
Understand the appropriate uses of assessment.

16. A reading specialist will be having a series of individual meetings with the parents, guardians, and surrogates of students who had the lowest scores on the latest statewide, standardized reading test. In the context of preparing for the meetings, which of the following issues should the reading specialist consider first?

  1. which steps can be taken in the home to support reading instruction and literacy development
  2. how to emphasize the importance of students' mastering the skills tested by this assessment
  3. how to explain the nature and purpose of the assessment and the meaning of the scores
  4. which specific instructional interventions would be most effective for the students
Answer
Correct Response: C.

PROFESSIONAL, PROGRAM, AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

Objective 026
Apply knowledge of professional practices related to students and others.

17. A reading specialist wants to implement a literacy volunteer program for the schools in his district. To create an effective volunteer program, which of the following steps will be most important for the reading specialist to take?

  1. assigning equal numbers of volunteers to each grade level and in each school in the district
  2. locating new reading materials and resources for the volunteers to use when they work with students
  3. determining whether the volunteers understand literacy development and reading instruction
  4. ensuring that volunteers under-stand their role and how they will function within the school community
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 028
Apply knowledge of methods for creating professional development programs for reading teachers and paraprofessionals.

18. A reading specialist wants to use a coaching model to observe a reading teacher and provide him with feedback about his instructional performance. To promote the most effective observation experience, which of the following steps should the reading specialist take first?

  1. Have the reading teacher provide a list of the instructional materials he will be using.
  2. Share with the reading teacher any comments classroom teachers have made about his work.
  3. Ask the reading teacher to help a student who has been particularly challenging.
  4. Meet with the reading teacher in a preconference to set goals for the observation.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 029
Analyze the role of reading specialists in curriculum development.

19. Which of the following types of expertise would be most important for reading specialists to provide in support of the process of curriculum planning in a school district?

  1. an awareness of the broad goals and objectives in the school district
  2. a familiarity with the needs of individual students
  3. the skills needed to interpret scores from standardized reading tests
  4. the ability to identify the district's best literacy teachers
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 030
Apply knowledge of literacy research.

20. Two elementary reading teachers have conducted research to determine the effectiveness of several different instructional strategies. The district's reading specialist has seen their research findings and urges them to offer this information to reading teachers and paraprofessionals at schools in the district. Sharing the research findings within the district will be beneficial primarily because other reading teachers will be given the:

  1. chance to put into practice and further assess the effectiveness of the strategies the first two reading teachers found to be successful.
  2. motivation to encourage their students to work at achieving the level of reading performance found in students at other schools.
  3. incentive to develop their own research projects to ensure that their students will be exposed to a variety of instructional methodologies.
  4. opportunity to question the first two reading teachers about their hypotheses and their techniques for conducting this research.
Answer
Correct Response: A.