How the Tests Were Developed

Each MTTC test assesses a candidate's knowledge and skills as required by the guidelines for Michigan teacher certification. The test objectives for each test include the following information:

  • the content areas covered on each test
  • the approximate percentage of test questions ("test proportion") by subarea

See Section 2 of the study guide in the "Prepare" section for more information about how to read the test objectives.

The synopsis that follows describes the rigorous process that was used to carefully develop or update each MTTC test, with the input of Michigan educators.

Note that tests are updated on an on-going basis. Therefore, the Michigan Department of Education (MDE) and Evaluation Systems are regularly seeking Michigan educators who wish to participate in future test development activities for the Michigan Test for Teacher Certification (MTTC). Visit the recruitment site to find out how to become involved in the test development process opens in a new window.

1. Develop Test Objectives

Michigan teacher preparation standards and other Michigan Department of Education–approved resources were used to develop draft test frameworks (sets of test objectives that define test content). The draft test objectives for each test field were reviewed, revised, and approved by committees of Michigan educators to ensure that they are accurate, free of bias, job related, representative of the diversity of the state, and consistent with the purposes of the testing program.

2. Validate Test Content

The approved test objectives for the MTTC tests were prepared for validation through content validation surveys, which were completed across all fields by thousands of randomly sampled practicing Michigan K–12 educators and educator preparation program faculty. Respondents for each test field rated the importance of the objectives in that field for performing the job of an educator in Michigan. Results from the content validation survey were analyzed to ensure that all objectives reflect the knowledge and skills considered to be important for performing the job of an educator in Michigan.

3. Develop and Review Test Questions

Test questions were drafted to match the final test objectives for each test field. Each draft test question was developed to correspond to an approved element of the test objectives. Committees of Michigan educators reviewed and revised the test questions to ensure that they are accurate, free of bias, job related, and representative of the diversity of the state.

A Bias Review Committee focused its review on excluding from the test materials any language, content, or perspectives that might disadvantage an examinee because of gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, race, nationality, ethnicity, religion, age, disability, or cultural, economic, or geographic background. The Bias Review Committee also focused on including in the test materials content and perspectives that reflect the diversity of the Michigan population. The Content Advisory Committees met to review and revise the draft test questions primarily from a content perspective, reviewing the questions for accuracy and freedom from bias and ensuring that the questions match objectives, align with Michigan standards, and relate to the job of a Michigan educator.

4. Conduct Field Testing

Test questions were field-tested at computer-based testing centers and at Michigan colleges and universities. The field-test data showed how the questions performed with potential Michigan educator candidates. Questions that did not perform acceptably on the field tests were either identified for deletion or revised for re-examination by the Michigan Department of Education or the Bias Review Committee and Content Advisory Committees.

5. Determine Passing Scores

Following the first administration of the tests, panels of Michigan educators participated in a structured process to make judgments regarding a passing score for each test. After the meetings, the passing score judgments were compiled and presented to the Michigan Department of Education, which set the passing score for each test field.

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