Overview and Test Objectives
Field 093: Integrated Science (Elementary)
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
|Time||2 hours 30 minutes*|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Foundations of Scientific Inquiry||001–005||25%|
Subarea I—FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
Objective 001—Understand the principles and procedures for conducting scientific research.
- developing valid experimental designs for collecting data and testing hypotheses
- recognizing the role of control groups in experiments
- understanding procedures for collecting and interpreting data to minimize bias
- identifying procedures used in setting up and conducting scientific investigations in natural and laboratory settings
- selecting and using simple measurement devices (e.g., rulers, balance scales, graduated cylinders, thermometers)
- solving problems involving measurement
- recognizing variables being held constant, being manipulated, and responding
- identifying how best to present data, ideas, and relationships (e.g., graphs, tables, equations, maps, models, analogies)
- evaluating simple descriptive statistics
- interpreting data presented in different formats
- evaluating the validity of conclusions
- assessing the reliability of sources of information
Objective 002—Apply knowledge of methods and equipment used in scientific investigations.
- identifying procedures for the safe use and storage of equipment and materials (e.g., chemicals, biohazards, heat sources) related to scientific investigations
- understanding the practices and requirements related to the humane treatment of animals
Objective 003—Understand the nature and history of scientific thought and inquiry.
- being aware of the reliance of scientific investigations on empirical data, verifiable evidence, and logical reasoning
- recognizing the effect of researcher bias on scientific investigations and the interpretation of data
- identifying major scientific ideas developed by individuals from different periods and cultures
- analyzing the dynamic nature of scientific knowledge, including ways in which scientific knowledge is acquired and modified
Objective 004—Understand the relationship of science to contemporary, historical, technological, and societal issues.
- recognizing the differences between science and technology
- identifying how society influences the practice of science
- analyzing the issues related to scientific and technological changes
- assessing the effects of science and technology on society and recognizing ethical issues (e.g., controversies surrounding cloning, genetically modified foods, energy use)
- analyzing the effects of pollution and conservation on the environment
- evaluating the credibility of scientific claims made in various forums (e.g., the popular media, professional journals, advertising)
Objective 005—Understand interrelationships among the life, physical, and earth/space sciences and among science, mathematics, and technology.
- recognizing major unifying themes and concepts that are common to the various scientific disciplines and that connect science, mathematics, and technology (e.g., classification, cause and effect, conservation of energy)
- describing the integration and interdependence of the sciences
- recognizing how common themes of science, mathematics, and technology (e.g., feedback, systems, scale) apply in real-world contexts
Subarea II—LIFE SCIENCE
Objective 006—Understand cell structure and function.
- identifying the principles of cell theory
- describing basic cell structures and their functions
- applying knowledge of the processes of mitosis and meiosis
- recognizing the steps involved in protein synthesis
- comparing and contrasting animal cells and plant cells
- analyzing the relationship between structure and function of specialized cells
Objective 007—Understand the organization, characteristics, and functions of living things.
- applying knowledge of systems for classifying organisms
- analyzing the development of multicellular organisms by cell growth and division
- describing the life cycles and reproductive strategies of common organisms
- comparing sexual and asexual reproduction
- recognizing the basic characteristics and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
- identifying homeostatic and metabolic processes
- recognizing levels of biological organization and interactions between the levels (e.g., cells, tissues, organs, systems)
- analyzing the functions of specialized structures (e.g., bark, fur) and systems (e.g., vascular, skeletal) found in plants and animals
Objective 008—Understand concepts of heredity and modern genetics.
- recognizing how characteristics are passed from one generation to the next (e.g., Mendelian genetics, molecular basis of inheritance)
- analyzing patterns of inherited traits
- identifying the influence of environmental factors on the inheritance of characteristics (e.g., natural selection, mutations)
- recognizing characteristics and applications of modern genetics (e.g., genetic engineering, DNA fingerprinting)
Objective 009—Understand evolutionary change of life on Earth.
- recognizing theories and processes associated with the origin and evolution of life
- evaluating scientific evidence for these theories and processes (e.g., fossil record, genetics, speciation, extinction)
- identifying methods used to investigate evolution
- evaluating the roles of variation, natural selection, and adaptation in producing species diversity
Objective 010—Understand characteristics of ecological systems.
- analyzing biotic and abiotic factors that affect populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes
- identifying strategies used by organisms to obtain basic requirements for life (e.g., nutrients, shelter, oxygen, water)
- identifying factors that affect population dynamics
- analyzing interrelationships among organisms, including humans, in ecosystems
- identifying biogeochemical cycles
- analyzing energy transfers in food webs and food chains
- applying knowledge of the process of ecological succession
- analyzing responses of ecosystems to changes in the environment
- analyzing issues related to the availability, management, and use of renewable and nonrenewable resources
Objective 011—Understand characteristics of human biology.
- applying knowledge of anatomical structures and physiological functions
- identifying causes and characteristics of common diseases and methods of prevention and treatment
- demonstrating knowledge of human reproduction and growth
- analyzing the role of environmental factors, nutrition, and fitness in maintaining health
- identifying factors that affect human population growth and diversity
Subarea III—EARTH/SPACE SCIENCE
Objective 012—Understand characteristics of the lithosphere and the history and processes of the changing earth.
- evaluating theories of the earth's origin
- identifying methods of determining the age of the earth
- describing processes of structural change in the earth's crust (e.g., mountain building, seafloor spreading, weathering, erosion)
- evaluating the theory of plate tectonics and evidence that supports this theory
- recognizing the structure and composition of the earth and its layers
- applying knowledge of the rock cycle
- analyzing the processes of rock, mineral, and soil formation
- describing the effects of natural phenomena (e.g., volcanism, meteor impacts, glaciation) on the earth and biosphere
- identifying important topographical features of the earth and their characteristics
- reading topographic and geologic maps
Objective 013—Understand characteristics of the hydrosphere.
- recognizing the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of oceans, lakes (including the Great Lakes), streams, and ground water
- analyzing how ocean currents and temperature affect climate and the biosphere
- using the water cycle to explain the movement and renewal of ground water and of water in oceans, rivers, lakes, and watersheds
- analyzing the role of phase changes in the hydrologic cycle
- describing how human activities affect the hydrosphere
- identifying how energy from the sun drives the hydrologic cycle
Objective 014—Understand the earth's atmosphere, weather, and climate.
- identifying the structure and characteristics of the atmosphere
- analyzing the processes and causes of atmospheric convection, cloud formation, and precipitation
- identifying the characteristics of low- and high-pressure systems and the movement of air in the atmosphere
- evaluating the climatological evidence and mechanisms implicated in global warming and depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere
- identifying equipment and techniques used to monitor the weather
- interpreting meteorological and climatological information
- applying knowledge of techniques used to predict the weather and climatic change
- explaining appropriate safety precautions during severe weather
Objective 015—Understand features of the universe and the methods of astronomy.
- comparing and contrasting components of our solar system
- analyzing interactions and movements of the earth, moon, and sun (e.g., seasonal changes, moon phases, eclipses, tides)
- identifying components of the solar system and universe (e.g., stars, comets, asteroids, galaxies) and their characteristics
- recognizing theories of the origin and evolution of the solar system and universe
Subarea IV—PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Objective 016—Understand the chemical properties of matter.
- using models of atomic structure to explain chemical behavior
- relating atomic structure to the structure and organization of the periodic table
- differentiating among elements, compounds, and mixtures
- interpreting chemical symbols, formulas, and expressions
Objective 017—Understand the nature of chemical changes in matter.
- analyzing common chemical changes (e.g., acid-base reactions, redox reactions) in terms of properties of reactants and products
- recognizing types of chemical bonds, their characteristics, and their effects on the properties of matter
- balancing equations
- identifying factors that affect rates of reaction and chemical equilibrium
Objective 018—Understand the physical properties of matter and the nature of physical changes.
- applying knowledge of the physical characteristics of matter (e.g., density, mass, atomic structure)
- relating the properties of materials to their usefulness
- understanding the difference between weight and mass
- applying knowledge of the characteristics of the states of matter
- explaining what happens at the molecular level during changes of state
- identifying the changes in energy that occur during changes of state
- identifying physical properties of common materials (e.g., metals, nonmetals, water)
- identifying the physical properties of mixtures and solutions and methods for their separation
Objective 019—Apply knowledge of the ideal gas laws and the kinetic molecular model to explain observable phenomena.
- using the kinetic molecular model to explain the properties and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases
- applying knowledge of the behavior of ideal gases, including the interrelationships among pressure, temperature, and volume in gases
- solving problems involving equilibrium in gaseous systems
Objective 020—Understand the basic concepts of mechanics as applied in real-world contexts.
- identifying and applying the concepts of force, work, and power
- solving problems involving motion of an object using the concepts of speed, velocity, acceleration, inertia, momentum, and mass
- describing the types, characteristics, and uses of simple machines
Objective 021—Apply knowledge of electricity, magnets, and electromagnetism.
- applying knowledge of the generation, properties, uses, and safety of current and static electricity
- interpreting electric circuit diagrams
- applying knowledge of the characteristics of magnets and magnetic fields
- identifying and applying the principles of electromagnetism
- describing the characteristics of the flow of charges and simple electric circuits
Objective 022—Understand the basic concepts of energy and thermodynamics.
- identifying different forms and uses of energy (e.g., mechanical, radiant, sound, thermal, electrical, nuclear)
- applying knowledge of energy transfer, conversion, and conservation
- analyzing the relationship between kinetic and potential energy
- differentiating between temperature and heat energy
- describing methods of heat energy transfer (i.e., convection, conduction, radiation)
- recognizing the laws of thermodynamics and their application in physical systems
Objective 023—Understand the characteristics and behavior of waves, vibrations, and optics.
- analyzing types and characteristics (e.g., frequency, amplitude) of waves and oscillations
- relating these characteristics to perceived phenomena (e.g., color, pitch, loudness)
- recognizing how wave interactions (e.g., superposition, interference) affect the character and propagation of waves
- describing the properties and behavior of sound and light waves in various media (e.g., refraction, reflection)
- applying knowledge of phenomena related to sound and light (e.g., echoes, shadows, Doppler effect)
- describing characteristics and properties of the color spectrum