Overview and Test Objectives
Field 005: Reading
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT) and paper-based test (PBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Meaning and Communication||001–005||19%|
|II||Genres and Craft of Literature and Language||006–009||15%|
|III||Skills and Processes||010–014||18%|
|VI||Professional, Program, and Curriculum Development||024–027||15%|
Subarea I—MEANING AND COMMUNICATION
Objective 001—Understand reading as a dynamic process.
- reading as a constructive process that involves the interaction among the reader's existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation
- the contributions of national and international literacy leaders to the knowledge base
- relevant research from general education and its influence on literacy education
- the characteristics of the phonemic, morphemic, semantic, and pragmatic systems of language and their relationships to the reading process
- the symbolic system of written language
- the social, cultural, and dynamic nature of language
Objective 002—Understand the integrated nature of the English language arts.
- elements of the English language arts
- how students benefit from having opportunities to integrate their use of reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing
- the value of students acting in all aspects of literacy (e.g., as readers, writers, thinkers, reactors, responders)
Objective 003—Identify factors that affect students' learning.
- major theories of cognition and learning
- the effect of various factors (e.g., physical, perceptual, emotional, social, cultural, environmental, intellectual) on students' learning
Objective 004—Identify factors that affect language development and reading acquisition.
- concepts related to emergent literacy
- the stages of literacy development (e.g., knowledge of letters and their sounds, phonemic awareness, reading words, accuracy and fluency, self-monitoring and self-correction strategies, comprehension, reading habits) and the experiences that support literacy
- how differences among learners influence their literacy development
- major theories of language development
- the influence of students' culture and language on their instructional needs
- the reciprocal relationship between language, culture, and individual identity
- how language choices advance and constrain people
Objective 005—Identify the different uses of language.
- methods for analyzing texts to determine style, voice, and language choices
- strategies for evaluating appropriateness of language for different contexts, purposes, and audiences
- differences in language use in professional, personal, and community environments
- the value of responding personally, analytically, and critically to a variety of written texts
Subarea II—GENRES AND CRAFT OF LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE
Objective 006—Understand literature and its uses in reading instruction.
- characteristics of classic and contemporary children's and young adults' literature, easy-reading fiction, and nonfiction at appropriate levels
- ways that oral, visual, and written texts can be used to address issues and problems in communities beyond the classroom
- key issues and recurring themes in literature
- ways to investigate examples of distortion and stereotypes through literature and other texts
Objective 007—Identify various literary genres and their uses in reading instruction.
- characteristics of various narrative genres and how they are used to convey ideas and perspectives
- how characteristics of various informational genres and elements of expository text structure are used to convey ideas
- parallels and contrasts among varied ideas, concepts, and perspectives in multiple texts and differing views presented in text to support an opinion
- how textual aids are used to convey meaning
Objective 008—Understand the appropriate use of mechanics and the author's craft to convey meaning.
- mechanics (e.g., figurative and descriptive language, grammar, punctuation) that facilitate understanding in all of the language arts
- the aspects of the craft of the speaker, writer, and illustrator that are used to formulate and express ideas artistically
Objective 009—Understand methods for promoting literacy.
- ways to cultivate students' enthusiasm for reading a variety of materials (e.g., book clubs, reading buddies, discussion groups, reading incentives, author studies, reader's theatre)
- the importance of respecting students' reading choices
Subarea III—SKILLS AND PROCESSES
Objective 010—Identify methods for creating a literate environment in the classroom.
- factors in the classroom that influence students' learning and reading (e.g., grouping procedures, types of reading tasks, assessment)
- ways to use texts to stimulate interest, promote reading growth, and foster appreciation for the written word
- methods that promote learners' motivation to read independently for information, pleasure, and personal growth
- opportunities for creative and personal responses to literature
- the use of instructional and information technologies to support literacy learning
Objective 011—Understand the developmental nature of the language arts.
- stages of oral language (listening and speaking), reading, writing, and spelling development
- ways students progress through stages of literacy at different rates
- second language acquisition and the implications for developing oral language, reading, and writing proficiency
- the nature of the writing process
- teaching strategies for each step of the writing process
Objective 012—Understand methods for promoting literacy as a lifelong skill.
- ways to prompt learners to select from a variety of written materials, read extended texts, and read for authentic purposes
- methods for integrating language arts in all content areas
- ways to help students understand how the craft of literacy expression can enhance their understanding and appreciation of varied texts
- ways to help students understand the techniques and devices of expression that influence a reader's, listener's, or viewer's responses
- strategies for including parents, guardians, and surrogates as partners in the literacy development of their children
- ways to model reading and writing as valuable, lifelong activities
Objective 013—Understand a variety of reading comprehension strategies.
- word identification strategies (e.g., phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, context clues, prior knowledge)
- the relationships among print-sound code, word identification, fluency, and comprehension
- the characteristics of fluent readers
- strategies for learning vocabulary
- strategies to promote comprehension (e.g., modeling a variety of questions, connecting prior knowledge with new information, recognizing text structures)
- multiple, metacognitive fix-up strategies for monitoring comprehension
Objective 014—Recognize uses of various study strategies.
- the use of print, nonprint, and electronic reference sources
- how to vary reading rate depending on the purpose and difficulty of the material
- effective techniques for managing time, organizing and recalling information, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, and test taking
- the value of learning through genuine inquiry
- ways to guide students as they set their own goals, select resources, investigate topics, organize and interpret data, draw inferences, and present their conclusions
Objective 015—Identify literacy instruction theories.
- developmentally appropriate instructional practices that are based on learning theory and are supported by current research
- approaches and strategies that represent principles of authentic instruction (e.g., higher-order thinking, connections to the world beyond the classroom)
- methodologies to teach reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing
Objective 016—Understand ways to enhance students' reading comprehension.
- appropriate uses of direct instruction
- when and how to use multiple comprehension strategies in a variety of texts
- ways to help students use various aspects of text (e.g., genres, text structure, conventions of written English) to gain comprehension
- ways to help students use strategies for monitoring their own comprehension
- the monitoring and fix-up strategies students can use to overcome difficulties when constructing and conveying meaning
Objective 017—Understand ways to enhance students' oral and written communication.
- how to teach students to use effective listening strategies and elements of effective speaking
- ways to help students select and use various methods of interpersonal, small-group, and public discourse to explore an idea
- strategies for teaching students to use the writing process (i.e., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing) to construct texts for multiple purposes in a variety of genres
- ways to guide students to refine their spelling knowledge through reading and writing
Objective 018—Understand methods for promoting vocabulary skills.
- how to help students use graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic relationships (e.g., letter/sound correspondence, phonemic awareness, structural analysis, context) to identify unfamiliar words
- ways to teach students to use multiple strategies to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts
- effective techniques for promoting students' independent vocabulary acquisition
Objective 019—Identify ways to establish a learning environment that supports the literacy development of all students.
- ways to empower learners who have a range of capacities, abilities, multiple intelligences, and learning styles
- methods of addressing the strengths and challenges of all learners
- the instructional implications of research addressing students with various needs (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD], English as a Second Language [ESL], gifted, special needs)
- methods for creating an inclusionary environment
Objective 020—Understand the principles and practices of literacy assessment.
- assessment practices based on learning theories (e.g., schema, constructivism, developmental) and research in literacy
- how to employ assessment practices that are aligned with literacy goals and curriculum
- ways to select, create, administer, and correctly interpret results of developmentally appropriate tools and measurements used for assessment and evaluation to inform classroom practice
Objective 021—Understand the uses of various literacy assessment instruments.
- classroom assessment techniques (e.g., checklists, anecdotal records, portfolios, rubrics) to plan for and support instruction
- the value of using results from a balance of formal and informal assessments
- ways to evaluate students' ability to use multiple strategies to decode and recognize words
- ways to evaluate students' ability to read with accuracy and fluency and determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts
- methods for assessing students' ability to construct meaning from a variety of texts
- ways to assess students' use of monitoring and fix-up strategies to help them overcome difficulties when constructing and conveying meaning
Objective 022—Identify concepts of self-assessment.
- ways to help students set goals and engage in self-reflection and assessment
- ways to help students document and evaluate the development of their communication abilities
- methods for evaluating students' collections of personal work, including the critical standards students use to judge the merit and aesthetic qualities of each selection
Objective 023—Understand the appropriate uses of assessment results.
- the use of standardized (e.g., Michigan Educational Assessment Program, Michigan Literacy Progress Profile, California Achievement Test) and classroom assessments for formative and summative evaluation purposes to inform classroom practice
- methods for evaluating students' print and nonprint texts using appropriate assessments that represent the components of the Michigan English Language Arts Content Standards and Benchmarks
- ways to communicate effectively with parents, guardians, and surrogates and students about the learner's progress and development
Subarea VI—PROFESSIONAL, PROGRAM, AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Objective 024—Understand approaches to assisting students with reading difficulties.
- the characteristics of reading difficulties
- principles for remediating reading difficulties
- how contextual factors (e.g., classroom environment, school program, assessment, grouping procedures) influence students' learning and reading
- ways to adapt instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners
- individualized and group interventions for students in greatest need or at low proficiency levels
Objective 025—Understand professional practices related to students, families, and the community.
- the importance of respecting the contributions, abilities, and languages of all learners
- ways to help students understand their own and others' cultures and languages
- methods for engaging parents, guardians, and surrogates as collaborators in promoting and sustaining literacy development
- strategies for working with the community to achieve literacy goals
Objective 026—Identify effective methods for interacting with others in the learning community.
- how to promote collegiality with literacy professionals through discussions and consultations about learners
- methods for informing administrators, staff, and the community concerning practices, assessment, and data
- appropriate methods for sharing interpretations of research findings with colleagues
- ways to participate in professional discourse
- the value of taking informed stands on literacy issues
- the benefits of making presentations at meetings and conferences
Objective 027—Understand methods for promoting professional growth.
- methods for engaging in reflective practice emphasizing inquiry-based teaching
- the benefits of reading professional journals and publications
- ways to participate in professional organizations that promote literacy (e.g., Michigan Reading Association [MRA], International Reading Association [IRA], National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC])
- methods for assisting paraprofessionals in their interactions with students and providing feedback on their performance
- the importance of using multiple indicators to judge professional growth