Study Guide

Field 094: Integrated Science (Secondary)
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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The following reference material will be available to you during the test:

Periodic Table links to a PDF document

CONSTRUCTING AND REFLECTING ON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

Objective 002
Apply knowledge of methods and equipment used in scientific investigations.

1. A student spills concentrated hydrochloric acid on his hand during a laboratory experiment. Which of the following actions is most appropriate for the teacher to take first?

  1. Flush the skin with water for 15 minutes.
  2. Send the student to the school nurse.
  3. Dry the hand with a clean cloth.
  4. Explain to the class the hazard posed by the spilled substance.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 005
Understand interrelationships among the life, physical, and earth/space sciences and their connections to mathematics and technology.

2. A biologist is consulting a physics book to better understand the relationship between volume and pressure in gases. The biolo­gist is most likely to need this information for research involving:

  1. the mechanism by which the heart moves oxygenated blood through the circulatory system.
  2. the ability of fish to remain neutrally buoyant at various depths.
  3. the mechanism by which sap moves upward against gravity in a tree.
  4. the ability of hibernating animals to reduce their oxygen consumption.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

LIFE SCIENCES

Objective 006
Understand cell structure and function.

3. Use the diagram below to answer the question that follows.

diagram of a cell

The diagram shows a circular cell undergoing mitosis. At the top and bottom poles, there are two rectangles at right angles to each other. A few short lines radiate from each pair of rectangles. Nine lines extend the whole distance between the pairs of rectangles, like the longitudinal lines on a globe. Every other line has a flattened X through it at the equator.

The cell in the diagram is undergoing mitosis. Which of the following processes will occur next?

  1. Two of the chromatid pairs will migrate to one pole, and the other two chromatid pairs will migrate to the other pole.
  2. All four chromatid pairs will migrate to one of the two poles.
  3. The individual chromatids of each pair will separate in preparation for migration to opposite poles.
  4. Each chromatid pair will make a copy of itself, then the original pairs will migrate to one pole and the copies will migrate to the other pole.
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 008
Understand characteristics of human biology.

4. Which of the following best explains why some individuals react to the presence of foreign antigens with symptoms of hay fever?

  1. They produce fewer antibodies that can neutralize specific antigens, causing irritation of exposed membranes.
  2. They produce specific antibodies, which react with foreign antigens, leading to the release of histamine and an inflammatory response.
  3. They have fewer white blood cells, allowing foreign antigens to build up to higher levels in the blood and inflame exposed tissue.
  4. Their antibodies fail to distinguish between the body's own proteins and the foreign antigens, inducing an exaggerated immune response.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 009
Understand concepts of heredity and modern genetics.

5. Use the diagram below to answer the question that follows.

diagram labeled Parental Chromosomes Prior to Gamete Formation

The diagram shows 2 parental chromosomes prior to gamete formation. The chromosome on the left is labeled "Father," and the one on the right is labeled "Mother." Each chromatid has a wide band, labeled "Trait 1," indicated near one end and a narrow band, labeled "Trait 2," indicated near the other end. On one chromatid of the Father, both bands are black. On all the other chromatids, the bands are white. The key indicates that black is an expressed dominant allele and white is an unexpressed dominant allele.

The genes for two independent genetic traits are located on a single chromosome as shown. The father is heterozygous for both of the traits, while the mother is homozygous recessive for each trait. Which of the following events during gamete formation would best explain an offspring who expresses only one of the dominant alleles?

  1. crossing over
  2. genetic equilibrium
  3. incomplete dominance
  4. sex-linked inheritance
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 010
Understand evolutionary change of life on Earth.

6. The evolutionary progression from amphibians to reptiles to birds is paralleled by an increase in which of the following characteristics?

  1. the ability to maintain body temperature by using the organism's metabolic heat
  2. the density and durability of bones and bone material
  3. the egg's ability to protect the embryo from desiccation and physical damage
  4. the number of offspring produced by each individual
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 011
Understand characteristics of ecological systems.

7. As ecological succession progresses in a field following the abandonment of a farm in Michigan, which of the following would be most likely to occur?

  1. The species of birds in the area will change as the vegetation shifts from grasses to shrubs to trees.
  2. The total numbers of living things in the ecosystem will increase, while the biodiversity of species will decrease.
  3. The rate at which new plant species adapt to the area will increase after a climax forest ecosystem is established.
  4. The hardwood trees that first colonize the field will increase shade, allowing for the growth of pine tree saplings.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

EARTH/SPACE SCIENCES

Objective 012
Understand characteristics of the lithosphere and the history and processes of the changing earth.

8. A geologist is dating a sample of igneous rock using radiometric dating techniques. After the ratio of the parent isotope to daughter isotope in the sample has been measured, which of the following addi­tional information must be known to determine the age of the sample?

  1. the mass of the sample
  2. half-life of the daughter isotope
  3. the mass of the parent isotope
  4. the half-life of the parent isotope
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 015
Understand features of the universe and the methods of astronomy.

9. In astronomy, the concept of "dark matter" has been used to explain which of the following phenomena?

  1. the microwave background radiation
  2. the rate of expansion of the universe
  3. the birth of the solar system
  4. the formation of black holes
Answer
Correct Response: B.

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Objective 016
Understand the chemical properties of matter.

10. Use the chemical equation below to answer the question that follows.

A2(g) + B2(g) ⇌ AB(g)

upper A sub 2 open parenthesis g closed parenthesis plus upper B sub 2 open parenthesis g closed parenthesis rightwards harpoon over leftwards harpoon upper A upper B open parenthesis g closed parenthesis

Two gases are combined in a closed container and react according to the equation above. Which of the following statements defines what will occur after the reaction reaches equilibrium?

  1. The concentration of reactants will be twice the concentration of the products.
  2. The concentration of products and reactants will be equal.
  3. The concentration of products will be twice the concentration of the reactants.
  4. The concentration of the reactants and products will remain constant.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 018
Understand the physical properties of matter, the ideal gas laws, and the nature of physical changes in terms of molecular behavior.

11. Cubes of ice are placed in a beaker over a heat source. Which of the following best explains why the temperature of the ice water will remain constant at 0°C until all of the ice has melted?

  1. Melting and evaporation are occurring at the same time and there is no net gain in kinetic energy.
  2. As the ice melts, the kinetic energy gained by the molecules is used to increase the volume of the water.
  3. The energy is used to rearrange the molecules rather than increasing the molecules' kinetic energy.
  4. Kinetic energy gained by the system is used to re-form crystals on the surface of the ice cubes.
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 019
Understand and apply the concepts of mechanics.

12. A 10 N force produces an acceleration of 2.5 meters per second squared in a toy rocket. A second toy rocket having a mass twice that of the first rocket is launched by a 15 N force. What is the approximate acceleration of the second rocket?

  1. 0.63 meters per second squared
  2. 1.3 meters per second squared
  3. 1.9 meters per second squared
  4. 2.8 meters per second squared
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 020
Understand and apply the concepts of electricity and magnetism.

13. Use the diagram below to answer the question that follows.

diagram of a compass and a battery

The diagram shows a compass and a battery. One end of a wire is attached to one of the battery terminals. The wire is wrapped around the compass several times, crossing the face from northwest to southeast. The loose end is connected to a switch, which is connected to the remaining battery terminal to complete the circuit.

A student coils a wire around a compass to make the circuit shown above. The student observes that the needle of the compass is deflected from its north-south position whenever the switch in the circuit is kept closed. When the switch is kept open, the needle is not deflected from the north-south position. Which of the following best describes why this occurs?

  1. The metal wire is composed of an alloy of iron or nickel.
  2. The electric field in the wire attracts the electrons in the compass needle.
  3. The current in the circuit causes the magnetic needle to reverse polarity.
  4. The moving electrons in the wire produce a magnetic field.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

MULTIPLE-SUBAREA PASSAGES

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

Some marine animals, called osmoregulators, are able to tolerate decreases in the salinity of their environment by regulating the osmotic concentrations of their body fluids. Animals that do this are able to maintain fairly constant ionic concentrations in tissues over a wide range of environmental ionic con­centrations. Other animals, called osmoconformers, allow their bodily ionic concentrations to conform to that of the changing medium.

Objective 013
Understand characteristics of the hydrosphere.

14. The ability of osmoregulators described in the passage is most likely to be important to animals inhabiting:

  1. coral reef environments.
  2. lakes and ponds.
  3. deep sea basins.
  4. estuaries.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 021
Understand and apply the basic concepts of energy and thermodynamics.

15. The behavior of osmoregulators described in the passage is most likely to involve the expenditure of energy because:

  1. ions will have to be moved against their concentration gradient.
  2. hydrostatic pressure will be required to prevent the influx of water.
  3. an inflow of ions will result in an increase in metabolic activity.
  4. water regulation will require an increase in neuromuscular activity.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 001
Understand and apply the principles and procedures for conducting scientific research.

16. Use the diagram below to answer the question that follows.

graph labeled Changes in Body Fluid Ionic Concentration as a Function of Increasing Salinity

The diagram is a line graph titled "Changes in Body Fluid Ionic Concentration as a Function of Increasing Salinity." The horizontal axis is labeled "Percent Seawater Concentration," with values marked from 0 to 100 in increments of 10. The vertical axis is labeled "Concentration of Body Fluids in M M O L per liter," with values marked from 0 to 600 in increments of 100. There are four data lines. Data line A extends in a straight line from the origin to a value of approximately 100, 600. Data line B extends in a straight horizontal line from a value of approximately 0, 540 to a value of approximately 100, 540. Data line C extends from a value of approximately 10, 225, starting upward at a 45 degree angle to a value of approximately 40, 400, then curves to a value of approximately 70, 500, to continue in a straight horizontal line to a value of approximately 100, 500. Data line D extends in a straight line from a value of approximately 15, 600 to a value of approximately 100, 200.

Which organism in the diagram is most likely an osmoconformer?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Use the passage below to answer the four questions that follow.

Methane is a gas that is plentiful in nature and is the main ingredient in natural gas. It is composed of a single carbon atom attached to four hydrogen atoms by single covalent bonds. Methane is produced from the breakdown of organic matter in a variety of natural settings including swamps, soils, and sediments. Methane, in the form of natural gas, is also found in association with oil deposits where, until the 1960s, it was considered a nuisance that was disposed of as cheaply as possible so as not to hinder the pumping of oil. Methane hydrate is a crystalline compound composed of methane molecules trapped inside a cage-like lattice of water molecules. The compound is found in great quantities in ocean sediments and in the soils of permafrost regions, making it an attractive potential energy resource. At times in the geologic past, methane hydrates and the deposits that contain them have become unstable, releasing large quantities of methane into the oceans and atmosphere.

Objective 017
Understand the nature of chemical changes in matter.

17. One of the reasons that methane is a relatively stable compound is that:

  1. atomic hydrogen's high electronegativity creates a strong attraction to the central carbon atom.
  2. transfer of electrons between the hydrogen and carbon atoms creates a tetrahedron.
  3. hydrogen atoms that surround the central carbon atom share electrons to form ionic bonds.
  4. shared electrons fill the valence orbitals in the hydrogen and carbon atoms.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 004
Understand the relationship of science and technology to contemporary, historical, and societal issues.

18. New technology is making the use of methane hydrate resources found in ocean sediments a possible future source of energy. A major reason for developing methane hydrates as an energy resource is that:

  1. the solid nature of methane hydrates allows them to be burned like coal or liquified for pipeline transport.
  2. combustion of methane from methane hydrates does not produce nitrogen and sulfur oxides.
  3. the inert nature of methane hydrates makes them less explosive than natural gas.
  4. retrieval of methane hydrates would cause less environmental damage than oil or natural gas extraction.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 007
Understand the organization, characteristics, and functions of living things.

19. Which of the following best describes how methane is produced by cattle?

  1. The multi-chambered stomach of a cow supports the growth of bacterial populations that digest cellulose and produce methane.
  2. Elemental carbon and hydrogen are broken down from grain consumed by the cow, recombining to produce methane.
  3. Incomplete breakdown of complex carbohydrates consumed by cattle promotes the growth of yeast, which produce methane during respiration.
  4. Oxygen entering the cow's digestive system during feeding and regurgitation promotes the growth of methane-producing microorganisms.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 014
Understand the earth's atmosphere, weather, and climate.

20. The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has doubled since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is continuing to increase. The primary reason this is a concern for society is because methane:

  1. is a very limited resource that cannot be produced on human time scales.
  2. combines with chloroflourocarbons in the upper atmosphere, causing increased ozone loss.
  3. is a major heat-trapping gas in the atmosphere implicated as a cause of global warming.
  4. creates haze at high levels in the atmosphere, altering atmospheric circulation patterns.
Answer
Correct Response: C.