Overview and Test Objectives
Field 056: Cognitive Impairment
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT) and paper-based test (PBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Understanding Students with Cognitive Impairments||001–004||20%|
|II||Assessing Students with Cognitive Impairments and Developing Individualized Programs||005–008||20%|
|III||Promoting Development and Learning in Students with Cognitive Impairments||009–016||40%|
|IV||Working in the Professional Environment||017–020||20%|
Subarea I—UNDERSTANDING STUDENTS WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS
Objective 001—Understand typical, atypical, and delayed human growth and development.
- cognitive, linguistic, physical, social, and emotional growth and development of individuals from birth to adulthood
- the effects of various disabilities on physical, sensory, motor, cognitive, language, social, and/or emotional development and functioning
- similarities and differences of individuals with and without disabilities in regard to growth and development
Objective 002—Understand factors that affect development and learning.
- educational implications of various types of disabilities (e.g., emotional/behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, physical disabilities)
- the implications of various disabilities on an individual's life (e.g., education, career, vocation, social relationships, recreation)
- the roles families play in the development and learning of students with and without disabilities
- the uses and possible side effects of various types of medication (e.g., stimulant, antidepressant, antiepileptic) in relation to students' learning, development, and daily living
Objective 003—Understand types, characteristics, etiologies, and prevention of cognitive impairments.
- definitions and criteria related to the types and levels of cognitive impairments
- common cognitive, behavioral, psychological, social/emotional, and motor characteristics of individuals with cognitive impairments
- the concepts of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior
- various etiologies and contributing factors related to cognitive impairments
- the prevention of cognitive impairments
Objective 004—Understand the effects of cognitive impairments on human development, learning, and transition to postsecondary/adult life roles.
- the effects of cognitive impairments on physical, sensory, motor, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development
- learning characteristics of students with cognitive impairments and strategies to address these characteristics
- the implications of cognitive impairments on students' educational opportunities and adult life roles (e.g., adult living, employment, community experience)
Subarea II—ASSESSING STUDENTS WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS AND DEVELOPING INDIVIDUALIZED PROGRAMS
Objective 005—Understand types and characteristics of various assessment instruments and methods.
- basic concepts and terminology used in assessment, including specialized terminology used in the assessment of students with cognitive impairments
- types, characteristics, and methods of formal and informal assessments (e.g., adaptive behavior assessments, intelligence tests, behavior-rating scales, performance assessments)
- principles of and procedures for creating, selecting, and evaluating educational and adaptive behavior assessment instruments and methods
- uses and limitations of various formal and informal assessment instruments and methods (e.g., task analyses, functional assessments, progress monitoring)
Objective 006—Understand procedures for conducting assessments to address the individual strengths and needs of students with cognitive impairments.
- procedures for collaborating with students' parents/guardians, classroom teachers, related service providers, and others to gather background information on students' academic, medical, developmental, and family history
- screening, prereferral, referral, and classification procedures
- procedures for the early identification of young children who may be at risk for disabilities, including those who may have cognitive impairments
- principles and procedures for modifying or adapting formal national, state, and local standardized assessments
- uses of assistive technology for conducting assessments
- procedures for developing, selecting, adapting, and modifying various assessment instruments and strategies for students with diverse characteristics and needs (e.g., related to culture, language, and nature and severity of disabilities)
- knowledge of environmental conditions during assessment that affect the performance of students with cognitive impairments
- procedures to ensure the use of nonbiased formal and informal assessments, including assessments of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (e.g., Michigan's Alternative Assessment Program: ELL-Access)
Objective 007—Understand procedures for interpreting and communicating assessment results to all stakeholders.
- the interpretation of results of informal and formal assessments of students with cognitive impairments
- factors and procedures involved in diagnosing cognitive impairments
- strategies for effectively communicating assessment results to all stakeholders (e.g., students with cognitive impairments, their parents/guardians, general education teachers, administrators, service providers)
- culturally responsive strategies for ensuring effective communication among stakeholders involved in the assessment process
Objective 008—Understand procedures for developing, implementing, and amending Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs), and transition plans for students with cognitive impairments.
- procedures for using assessment information to determine eligibility for special education and related services
- strategies for using assessment information to make program, placement, and service delivery decisions for students with cognitive impairments, including those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds
- knowledge of the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the continuum of services
- procedures for developing, implementing, and amending comprehensive, longitudinal individualized programs (e.g., IEPs, IFSPs, transition plans) in collaboration with students with cognitive impairments, their parents/guardians, general education teachers, and other professionals
- familiarity with national, state, and local content and performance standards (e.g., Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations [GLCE])
- strategies for prioritizing areas of the general curriculum for students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for developing, sequencing, implementing, and evaluating short- and long-term individualized learning goals
Subarea III—PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING IN STUDENTS WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS
Objective 009—Understand strategies for planning and managing the learning environment for students with cognitive impairments.
- strategies for designing and modifying learning environments (e.g., teaching methods, physical arrangement of the classroom, support services, assistive technologies) to meet the physical, cognitive, cultural, and communication needs of students with cognitive impairments
- classroom management strategies, including structuring and managing daily routines (e.g., transition times between lessons or classes), to optimize students' time on task and facilitate students' effective use of instructional time
- techniques for supporting students' successful integration into various program placements (e.g., classroom, community-based settings) and for encouraging students' active participation in individual and group activities
- knowledge of the effects of teacher attitudes and behaviors on students with and without disabilities
- effective teacher strategies for establishing and maintaining rapport with all students
- strategies for preparing students to live productively in a culturally diverse world
- uses of technology for planning and managing the teaching and learning environment
- appropriate techniques for the safe transfer, lifting, and positioning of students with cognitive impairments who have physical disabilities
Objective 010—Understand principles, methods, and collaboration for individualizing instruction for students with cognitive impairments.
- knowledge of ways in which cognitive impairments may affect students' progress in the general education curriculum
- methods for selecting, adapting, and using research-based instructional methods and materials to address the strengths and needs of students with cognitive impairments, including students who have multiple disabilities
- strategies for developing and selecting instructional content, materials, and resources that are responsive to students' cultural, linguistic, and gender differences
- strategies for designing and implementing sensory stimulation programs for students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for teaching students with cognitive impairments how to use and maintain assistive and adaptive devices and/or technology
- strategies for teaching students with cognitive impairments how to use self-assessment, problem-solving, and other cognitive strategies to identify and meet their own needs
Objective 011—Understand strategies for enhancing the communication skills of students with cognitive impairments.
- strategies and techniques for supporting and enhancing students' verbal and nonverbal language and communication skills, including the use of alternative and augmentative means of communication (e.g., assistive technology, American Sign Language)
- strategies and techniques for working with English language learners with cognitive impairments
- strategies and techniques to enhance students' ability to express their wants, needs, and feelings; to follow and give directions; and to organize and convey information
- strategies for conducting ongoing assessment of students' progress in developing communication skills
Objective 012—Understand strategies for enhancing positive self-concept, social interactions, and self-advocacy skills in students with cognitive impairments.
- knowledge of social skills that students with cognitive impairments need to develop to be successful in educational and other environments (e.g., working cooperatively, initiating and engaging in conversations)
- appropriate expectations for the personal and social behavior of students with cognitive impairments in given settings (e.g., classroom, workplace, community)
- strategies for integrating social skills development across the curricula
- strategies for developing students' understanding of their rights
- strategies for preparing students to advocate for themselves and to seek out available services through governmental and nongovernmental agencies
- strategies for enhancing students' self-awareness, self-management, self-control, self-esteem, assertiveness, and independence
Objective 013—Understand strategies for enhancing students' acquisition of functional academic skills.
- research-based strategies for teaching students with cognitive impairments functional academic skills
- strategies for integrating reading, writing, and mathematics instruction into daily routines and activities
- strategies for developing students' study skills (e.g., using visual aids, recognizing and utilizing sources of information and assistance)
- strategies for helping students with cognitive impairments apply, maintain, and generalize academic skills across learning environments
- strategies for conducting ongoing assessment of students' progress in developing functional academic skills
Objective 014—Understand strategies for developing students' acquisition of functional living skills.
- strategies for evaluating, selecting, and adapting instructional materials, assistive technologies, and community resources to support students' development of functional living skills, vocational competence, independent and community living skills, and citizenship skills and to encourage students' participation in civic, leisure, and recreational activities
- knowledge of programs (e.g., academic, vocational, transitional) that are known to be effective for students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for helping students with cognitive impairments maintain and generalize functional living skills across learning environments
- strategies for conducting ongoing assessment of students' progress in developing functional living skills
Objective 015—Understand strategies for managing student behavior and developing and implementing effective behavioral interventions for students with cognitive impairments.
- appropriate behavior management techniques (e.g., Positive Behavior Supports, prompting, cuing) to use with students with cognitive impairments to establish and maintain appropriate behavior in the learning environment
- types, characteristics, strengths, and limitations of various behavioral interventions
- components of functional behavioral assessments and behavioral intervention plans
- components of a manifestation determination review
- strategies for crisis prevention and intervention
- strategies for developing, implementing, and modifying supports and behavioral intervention plans to meet the needs of students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for coordinating behavioral interventions among stakeholders (e.g., students' parents/guardians, general education teachers, service providers) involved in the implementation of Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
- strategies for recognizing when behavioral intervention plans are not working and making changes to such plans
Objective 016—Understand strategies and procedures for supporting students' life transitions.
- strategies and techniques to promote care for self and others, positive health and fitness habits, and safe travel and mobility routines
- strategies for increasing students' understanding of the responsibilities associated with friendship, human sexuality, family life, and parenting
- strategies to promote successful transitions for students with cognitive impairments (e.g., between teachers, grade levels, schools, and service options)
- strategies for providing work experience and career-planning services to students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for developing appropriate goals, objectives, activities, programs, and supports to facilitate students' successful transition into employment, postsecondary education, training, and/or other adult services or activities
Subarea IV—WORKING IN THE PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Objective 017—Understand strategies for communicating and collaborating with students with cognitive impairments and their families to help students achieve desired learning outcomes.
- accommodations and alternative methods that can be used in communicating with students with cognitive impairments
- typical concerns of parents/guardians and families of students with cognitive impairments and effective strategies for addressing such concerns
- strategies for planning and conducting collaborative conferences with students with cognitive impairments and their parents/guardians
- strategies for helping students with cognitive impairments and their parents/guardians become active participants on the educational team (e.g., during assessment, during the development and implementation of individualized programs)
- culturally responsive strategies for ensuring effective communication and collaboration among families of students with cognitive impairments, school personnel, and representatives of community agencies
- an understanding of family systems and the roles families play in the educational process
- knowledge of the potential impact of differences in values, languages, and customs that can exist between the home and school
Objective 018—Understand how to establish partnerships with other school personnel, professional organizations, and community agencies to enhance learning opportunities for students with cognitive impairments.
- roles and responsibilities of various school personnel (e.g., general education teachers, vocational teachers, speech and language pathologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, social workers) in providing a comprehensive educational program for students with cognitive impairments
- effective strategies of consultation and collaboration (e.g., co-planning, co-teaching) for working with other teachers and school staff to provide instruction for students with cognitive impairments
- strategies and procedures for supervising and working with teachers' aides, volunteers, and paraprofessionals
- strategies for consulting and collaborating with general education teachers and other service providers in instructional methods, assistive and adaptive devices, and accommodations for students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for integrating therapy services (e.g., speech/language, occupational, physical) into students' daily routines
- procedures for coordinating materials, equipment, and services for students with cognitive impairments
- types and functions of governmental and nongovernmental agencies and services, networks, and organizations for students with cognitive impairments and their families and strategies for working effectively with representatives of such entities to secure advocacy, educational, transitional, and residential services for students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for coordinating services provided by community agencies for students with cognitive impairments
- strategies for collaborating with team members to plan transitions for students with cognitive impairments that encourage and support their full participation in the community
Objective 019—Understand the historical, social, and legal foundations of education for students with cognitive impairments.
- the historical and philosophical foundations of special education and the field of cognitive impairments
- contemporary issues and trends (e.g., early intervention, inclusion, person-centered planning, technological advances) in special education and the field of cognitive impairments
- the rights and responsibilities of stakeholders (e.g., students, parents/guardians, teachers, other professionals, schools, other student advocates) related to the education of students with cognitive impairments
- legal standards and issues in the education of students with cognitive impairments (e.g., confidentiality; eligibility; due process; referral, assessment, and placement policies and procedures)
- legal regulations and guidelines (e.g., Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act [IDEIA], No Child Left Behind Act [NCLB], Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA], Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act) relevant to the education of students with cognitive impairments
- legal and ethical guidelines (e.g., Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act [FERPA]) in regard to maintaining confidentiality when communicating about students with cognitive impairments
Objective 020—Understand the professional, ethical, and legal roles and responsibilities involved in the education of students with cognitive impairments.
- knowledge of the importance of upholding high standards for professional practice through participation in professional activities and organizations that benefit students with cognitive impairments
- knowledge of resources (e.g., professional organizations and journals, online resources, conferences, workshops, mentors) to enhance one's professional knowledge (e.g., current research-validated practices, knowledge of philosophies and skills related to the education of students with cognitive impairments) and engage in lifelong professional growth and development
- effective strategies for engaging in reflection and self-assessment activities for the purposes of identifying one's cultural biases and differences, improving instruction, and guiding professional growth
- knowledge of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Code of Ethics (e.g., person first language) and the Michigan Professional Educator's Code of Ethics
- knowledge of the importance of upholding high standards of competence, good judgment, and integrity when conducting instructional and other professional activities, including complying with all applicable laws, policies, and procedures (e.g., related to evaluation requirements, mandated reporting, and behavior management)
- appropriate procedures for creating and maintaining records regarding students with cognitive impairments, including following legal and ethical guidelines for maintaining confidentiality
- strategies for advocating effectively for students with cognitive impairments, their families, and the special education program in general