Overview and Test Objectives
Field 018: Chemistry
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT) and paper-based test (PBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Reflecting On and Constructing Scientific Knowledge||001–005||25%|
|II||Using Inorganic Chemistry||006–012||32%|
|III||Using Physical Chemistry||013–018||27%|
|IV||Using Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry||019–022||16%|
Subarea I—REFLECTING ON AND CONSTRUCTING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
Objective 001—Understand the principles and procedures of scientific inquiry.
- formulating research questions and investigations in chemistry
- developing valid experimental designs for collecting and analyzing data and testing hypotheses
- recognizing the need for control groups in experiments
- understanding procedures for collecting and interpreting data to minimize bias
- recognizing independent and dependent variables and analyzing the role of each in experimental design
- identifying the most appropriate method (e.g., graph, table, formula) for presenting data for a given purpose
- applying mathematics to investigations in chemistry and the analysis of data
- interpreting results presented in different formats
- evaluating the validity of conclusions
- assessing the reliability of sources of information
Objective 002—Apply knowledge of methods and equipment used in scientific investigations.
- selecting and using appropriate data collection and measurement devices and methods
- identifying uncertainties in measurement
- evaluating the accuracy and precision of a measurement in a given situation
- identifying procedures and sources of information related to the safe use, storage, and disposal of materials and equipment related to chemistry investigations
- identifying hazards associated with laboratory practices and materials
- applying procedures for preventing accidents and dealing with emergencies
Objective 003—Understand the nature of scientific thought, inquiry, and history.
- demonstrating knowledge of the reliance of scientific investigations on empirical data, verifiable evidence, and logical reasoning
- recognizing the effect of researcher bias on scientific investigations and the interpretation of data
- demonstrating an awareness of the contributions made to chemistry by individuals of diverse backgrounds and different time periods
- recognizing the dynamic nature of scientific knowledge, including ways in which scientific knowledge is acquired and modified
Objective 004—Understand the relationship of chemistry to contemporary, historical, technological, and societal issues.
- recognizing the relationships between science and technology
- analyzing historical, political, and social factors that affect developments in chemistry, including current issues related to chemistry research and technology (e.g., alternative fuels, polymers)
- evaluating the credibility of scientific claims made in various forums (e.g., mass media, professional journals, advertising)
Objective 005—Understand interrelationships among the physical, life, and earth/space sciences and their connections to mathematics and technology.
- recognizing major unifying themes and concepts that are common to the various scientific disciplines (e.g., patterns, cause and effect, conservation of energy, entropy)
- describing the integration and interdependence of the sciences, mathematics, and technology and their applications in real-world contexts
Subarea II—USING INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Objective 006—Apply the rules of chemical nomenclature and notation.
- applying basic rules of nomenclature to identify and name inorganic substances
- interpreting symbols and chemical notation for elements, isotopes, ions, molecules, and compounds
Objective 007—Understand atomic and molecular structure and bonding.
- identifying the parts of an atom and their characteristics
- comparing historic models of the atom
- using the periodic table to predict the properties of a given element
- representing atoms, ions, and compounds with electron-dot diagrams
- analyzing the characteristics of different types of bonds (covalent, ionic, metallic), including the role of electrons in bonding
- predicting physical and chemical properties based on the bonding in a substance
- using VSEPR theory to explain molecular geometry and polarity
- identifying types of intermolecular forces and relating them to the physical properties of molecular substances
Objective 008—Apply the mole concept and the principles and methods of stoichiometry.
- defining a mole and recognizing the significance of the mole concept
- calculating the number of moles in a given mass or volume of a substance
- solving problems involving molecular and formula masses and percent composition
- determining empirical and molecular formulas
- applying the law of conservation of mass to solve problems involving moles, mass, and volume and problems involving solution chemistry
- balancing chemical equations
- solving problems involving limiting reagents and percent yield
- recognizing net ionic equations
Objective 009—Apply knowledge of chemical equilibrium and reaction rates.
- analyzing the effects of concentration, pressure, temperature, and catalysts on chemical equilibrium and applying Le Chatelier's principle to chemical systems
- solving problems involving equilibrium constants and reaction quotients
- solving problems involving solubility product constants of slightly soluble salts and the common-ion effect
- analyzing everyday phenomena in terms of chemical equilibrium
- describing how temperature, concentrations, and catalysts affect reaction rates
- analyzing potential energy versus reaction coordinate diagrams
- identifying first-order and second-order reactions from the rate law for a reaction
- determining the rate law of a reaction from experimental data
- recognizing the relationship between a reaction mechanism and the rate law
Objective 010—Understand the principles and applications of acid-base chemistry.
- analyzing acids and bases according to acid-base theories (i.e., Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, Lewis)
- distinguishing between strong and weak acids and bases and identifying conjugate acid-base pairs
- calculating the hydronium or hydroxide ion concentration and the pH or pOH of various acid and base solutions
- predicting the acid-base properties of various salts
- analyzing the composition and function of buffer solutions
- applying the principles of acid-base titration, including the selection of indicators, and interpreting the results of acid-base titrations
- identifying applications of acid-base chemistry
Objective 011—Understand the principles and applications of electrochemistry.
- interpreting the behavior of common substances in terms of oxidation-reduction reactions
- determining oxidation numbers and balancing oxidation-reduction reactions (e.g., half-reaction method)
- analyzing the feasibility of given reactions based on electrode potentials at standard conditions and nonstandard conditions
- analyzing the components, operating principles, and potentials of electrochemical and electrolytic cells
- relating cell potentials to spontaneity and equilibrium constants
- demonstrating knowledge of methods and applications of electrochemical analysis
- identifying applications of electrochemistry
Objective 012—Understand qualitative analysis.
- demonstrating knowledge of various separation techniques (e.g., distillation, filtration, chromatography) and their basic principles
- selecting an appropriate separation technique in a given situation
- demonstrating knowledge of the methods and equipment used for determining the types of substances present in a sample
- identifying everyday applications of qualitative analysis
Subarea III—USING PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Objective 013—Understand chemical thermodynamics and thermochemistry.
- differentiating among forms of energy (e.g., heat, chemical, nuclear)
- analyzing how the laws of thermodynamics apply to chemical systems
- predicting the spontaneity of given reactions based on enthalpy changes, entropy changes, and temperatures of the systems
- analyzing endothermic and exothermic reactions
- distinguishing between heat and temperature
- demonstrating knowledge of the principles of calorimetry
- analyzing the results of calorimetry experiments
- solving enthalpy problems using Hess's law, standard enthalpies of formation, and bond energies
Objective 014—Apply methods for measuring the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
- comparing physical properties (e.g., melting point, density, solubility) of solids, liquids, and gases
- demonstrating knowledge of methods and equipment used for measuring the physical properties of substances
- using the physical properties of a substance to identify it
Objective 015—Apply knowledge of the kinetic molecular theory to the states of matter, phase changes, and the gas laws.
- identifying the basic tenets of the kinetic molecular theory
- using the kinetic theory to describe and explain characteristics of the states of matter, including changes of state
- explaining the dynamic equilibrium between phases
- analyzing heating and cooling curves
- analyzing vapor pressure curves and phase diagrams
- analyzing the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of a gas or mixture of gases
- distinguishing between ideal and real gas behavior
- setting up and solving problems involving gas law relationships
Objective 016—Understand characteristics and properties of solutions.
- analyzing the colligative properties of solutions
- recognizing factors that affect solubility, including intermolecular forces
- interpreting solubility curves
- solving problems involving concentrations of solutions (e.g., molarity, molality, percent by mass percentage)
- analyzing the process of dissociation in solution
- identifying properties of strong and weak electrolyte solutions
- applying solubility rules of inorganic salts to predict the occurrence of precipitation reactions
Objective 017—Understand quantum mechanics.
- identifying basic features of the quantum mechanical model of the atom
- recognizing the experimental evidence for the quantum mechanical model of the atom
- analyzing the relationships among electron energy levels, photons, and atomic spectra
- demonstrating a basic understanding of quantum numbers
- describing atomic orbitals
- predicting the electron configurations of neutral atoms and ions of given elements
- relating photon energy to the wavelength and frequency of light
Objective 018—Understand the basic principles and methods of spectroscopy.
- demonstrating knowledge of the basic principles used in spectroscopy, limited to UV, visible, infrared, and mass spectroscopy
- recognizing the kind of information that can be determined using spectroscopic analysis
- identifying everyday applications of spectroscopy
Subarea IV—USING ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective 019—Understand the structure and nomenclature of organic compounds.
- classifying hydrocarbons (e.g., alkane, aromatic) based on the type of carbon-carbon bonds
- identifying the main families of organic compounds by means of their functional groups
- using IUPAC rules to name simple organic compounds
- identifying heterocyclic compounds
- recognizing isomers of organic compounds, including stereoisomers
Objective 020—Understand organic reactions of major functional groups.
- demonstrating knowledge of the reactions of the major functional groups (addition, condensation, elimination, substitution)
- identifying the processes by which organic polymers are formed
- identifying everyday applications of organic reactions
Objective 021—Understand the structure and function of biomolecules.
- recognizing and distinguishing the structures of the major classes of biomolecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids)
- identifying the primary functions of the various types of biomolecules and relating these functions to molecular structure
- recognizing the role of enzymes in biological systems
- recognizing factors that affect enzyme kinetics
- recognizing the importance and role of buffers in biological systems
Objective 022—Understand biochemical reactions and processes.
- using chemical principles (including thermodynamics) to analyze important biochemical processes (e.g., synthesis, degradation, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation)
- identifying the overall chemical equations for the metabolic reactions of photosynthesis and respiration