Study Guide

Field 063: Learning Disabilities
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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UNDERSTANDING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES

Objective 001
Understand the manifestations of learning disabilities across the age span.

1. Educators can best increase the likelihood of a full and productive life for students who have learning disabilities by emphasizing which of the following approaches?

  1. providing instruction that focuses primarily on developing student strengths rather than remediating areas of weakness
  2. maintaining expectations for student performance that are equal to or higher than those defined for nondisabled peers
  3. teaching students a variety of specific skills and strategies that they can apply in a broad range of contexts
  4. encouraging students to define their own learning goals and standards and offering them ample choices in how to achieve them
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 002
Understand factors that affect development and learning.

2. Being identified as having learning disabilities is most likely to have a negative effect on a student's learning when the diagnosis:

  1. causes the student, teachers, and others to lower expectations for the student's achievement.
  2. occurs at an early age, before the student has had an opportunity to develop a firm self-concept.
  3. results in rapid and significant changes to the student's educational program.
  4. indicates significant problems in the social-emotional domain as well as the cognitive domain.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 003
Understand types and characteristics of receptive and expressive language disorders associated with learning disabilities.

3. Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

As part of an informal assessment of students' language skills, a first-grade teacher writes the following sentences that were produced by students in conversations during the first week of school. The teacher's translations are shown in parentheses.

Student What the Student Said Teacher's Translation
1 I dell him a dop running in a hall. He don lisen a me. I tell him to stop running in the hall. He doesn't listen to me.
2 Me goed tomorrow to store with Dad. Him no buy me candy. I went to the store with my dad yesterday. He didn't buy me candy.
3 How did both my pencil get on a floor? I didn't see nobody do it. How did both of my pencils get on the floor? I didn't see anybody do it.
4 Sometime I go over Todd's to play. Sometime he come a my house. Sometimes I go over to Todd's (house) to play. Sometimes he comes to my house.

Which of the students in the example above is most likely demonstrating a language delay related to syntax?

  1. Student 1
  2. Student 2
  3. Student 3
  4. Student 4
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 004
Understand types and characteristics of perceptual, memory, and reasoning disorders associated with learning disabilities.

4. Carmen is a fourth-grade student with a learning disability who exhibits the following tendencies:

Carmen's difficulties are most characteristic of a disorder in which of the following areas?

  1. tactile perception
  2. long-term memory
  3. visual perception
  4. conceptual reasoning
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 005
Understand types and characteristics of behavioral, social, and emotional disorders associated with learning disabilities.

5. Which of the following behavioral problems is most characteristic of students with learning disabilities who are prone to internalizing behavior?

  1. hyperactivity
  2. antisocial behavior
  3. tantrums
  4. social withdrawal
Answer
Correct Response: D.

ASSESSING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES AND DEVELOPING INDIVIDUALIZED PROGRAMS

Objective 006
Understand types and characteristics of various assessment instruments and assessment methods.

6. Ms. Yung is a teacher of elementary students with learning disabilities. Several students in her class have specific learning disabilities in mathematics. Ms. Yung would like to learn more about each student's specific mathematical abilities in order to plan instruction. Which of the following assessment instruments would likely be most appropriate and effective for this purpose?

  1. aptitude test
  2. diagnostic test
  3. screening test
  4. achievement test
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 007
Understand procedures for conducting assessments to address the individual strengths and needs of students with learning disabilities.

7. A seventh-grade student whose family moved to the United States four years ago is referred by his English teacher for a comprehensive evaluation. Although this student is bilingual, has strong written expression skills, does well on quizzes and tests, and has many friendships, the English teacher is concerned because in class the student is silent, reluctant to respond when called on, and does not participate during classroom discussions. Mr. Dawson is the teacher of students with learning disabilities who will be conducting the academic assessment of this student. After reviewing the reasons for the referral, which of the following should Mr. Dawson consider first before conducting the assessment?

  1. whether the student's behavior reflects cultural differences
  2. if the student's behavior signifies performance anxiety
  3. whether the student's behavior reflects difficulty in paying attention
  4. if the student's behavior indicates an oral expression learning disability
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 008
Understand procedures for interpreting and communicating assessment results to stakeholders.

8. Kirk is an eleventh-grade student with a specific learning disability in written expression who plans to attend college. He has just com-pleted a three-year reevaluation of his academic achievement with Ms. Newhouse, the teacher of students with learning disabilities. To enhance Kirk's self-determination skills, Ms. Newhouse wishes to ensure that Kirk understands the results of his reevaluation so that he can participate actively in his upcoming Individualized Education Program (IEP) team meeting. Which of the following strategies would likely be the most effective for Ms. Newhouse to use in accomplishing this goal?

  1. reviewing with Kirk his current IEP goals and objectives and explaining to him how the assessment results, his daily classwork, and report card grades reflect areas of growth and need
  2. providing Kirk with a summary of all the assessment results, explaining the meaning of the various scores, and comparing the results with his most recent report card grades
  3. reviewing the assessment results with Kirk using nontechnical language, explaining how the results reflect his strengths and needs, and having him practice explaining the results in his own words
  4. having Kirk read through the assessment report, answering any questions that he may have about the results, and then role-playing with him the IEP meeting process
Answer
Correct Response: C.

Objective 009
Understand procedures for developing, implementing, and amending Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs), and transition plans for students with learning disabilities.

9. Daniel is a second-grade student with learning disabilities in basic reading skills and listening comprehension. His Individualized Education Program (IEP) includes the following goal.

Daniel will improve his ability to follow oral directions.

Which of the following assessments would be the most appropriate for the teacher of students with learning disabilities to use in monitoring his progress toward meeting the goal above?

  1. a functional behavioral assessment
  2. a behavior-rating scale
  3. a structured behavioral observation
  4. a portfolio assessment
Answer
Correct Response: C.

TEACHING AND MODIFYING INSTRUCTION AND CURRICULA FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES

Objective 010
Understand strategies for planning and managing the learning environment for students with learning disabilities.

10. Mr. House is a fourth-grade teacher of students with learning disabilities. As students enter the classroom each day, he makes eye contact with the students and greets them with a smile. He also makes a point of complimenting the students and asking them questions about their favorite hobbies. Which of the following is likely to be the most important outcome of this practice?

  1. facilitating a smooth transition into the day's instructional activities
  2. communicating to students the teacher's perception of them as valued individuals
  3. fostering in students a positive attitude toward others
  4. providing students with the opportunity to improve their communication skills
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 011
Understand principles and methods of individualizing instruction for students with learning disabilities.

11. Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

A teacher of students with learning disabilities teaches students how to develop concept maps as a strategy for learning new concepts in content-area classes. An example of a student-made concept map is shown below.

graphic of a concept map relating to mammals

The title of the concept map is "Science, Chapter 3, Section: Mammals." At the top of the map, the word "Mammals" is underlined and circled and connected by a network of lines to other circled words and terms. "Mammals" is connected to "Characteristics," "Are not," and "Examples." "Characteristics" is connected to "Warm-blooded," Vertebrates (have backbones)," and "Have Hair." "Are not" is connected to "Birds," "Sharks," and "Snakes." "Examples" is connected to "Bats," "Dogs," and "Humans."

Teaching students how to develop and use concept maps is most likely to facilitate their understanding of new concepts by:

  1. helping them transfer knowledge between content areas.
  2. focusing their attention on specific details.
  3. helping them prioritize academic content.
  4. increasing their ability to organize information logically.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 013
Understand strategies for promoting emergent literacy skills in students with learning disabilities.

12. Shawna is an English language learner who has a learning disability in basic reading skills. Which of the following situations would make it particularly difficult for Shawna to develop phonemic awareness in English?

  1. Shawna's primary language has no written form.
  2. English shares very few cognates with Shawna's primary language.
  3. Shawna's primary language uses a nonalphabetic writing system.
  4. Certain English sounds do not occur in Shawna's primary language.
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 014
Understand strategies for promoting reading skills in students with learning disabilities.

13. Which of the following students is most likely demonstrating difficulty in reading fluency?

  1. Paulo, who can comprehend grade-level texts when they are read aloud to him but has difficulty comprehending such texts on his own
  2. Marta, who can decode most grade-level words but reads grade-level text haltingly with frequent repetitions and self-corrections
  3. Vince, who can read grade-level words that follow common phonics patterns but has difficulty decoding irregular multisyllabic words
  4. Sarina, who can rapidly and automatically read most grade-level texts but has limited comprehension of what she reads
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 015
Understand strategies for promoting written expression in students with learning disabilities.

14. Rosa is a third-grade student with a learning disability in written expression that affects her handwriting. Mr. Jackson, the teacher of students with learning disabilities, notices that Rosa is struggling with writing difficult letters such as q and y. According to research, which of the following approaches to teaching letter formation is likely to be most effective for supporting Rosa's handwriting development?

  1. Mr. Jackson says the steps aloud as he models the formation of each target letter on paper while Rosa observes and then practices writing each letter on her own.
  2. Mr. Jackson forms the target letters on the board and then Rosa copies each letter multiple times on specially lined paper.
  3. Mr. Jackson provides Rosa with practice sheets on which she first traces outlines of the letters with a pencil and then writes each letter on her own.
  4. Mr. Jackson gives Rosa a short paragraph that contains words that use the target letters, which she then copies several times.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 017
Understand strategies for promoting the social competence of students with learning disabilities.

15. Ms. Lui is a high school teacher of students with learning disabilities. One of her ninth-grade students, Nathan, has a learning disability in reading comprehension as well as an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). He attends general education classes for the majority of the school day and works with Ms. Lui in the resource room for one period each day. During a recent team meeting, two of Nathan's general education teachers voiced concerns regarding the overall effect of Nathan's behavior in their classrooms. In particular, Nathan's classmates do not like to work with him on small-group projects and activities because he never completes his share of the assigned tasks. Instead, he keeps redoing the same task repeatedly, often for the entire class period. Which of the following steps should Nathan's general education teachers take first in promoting Nathan's ability to work cooperatively with peers?

  1. Assign Nathan to work with a peer who will model for him how to complete tasks within a specified time period.
  2. Teach Nathan a cue that his teachers will give to identify when it is time for him to stop focusing on one task and move on to the next.
  3. Provide Nathan with direct instruction in turn-taking and communication skills to increase his positive interactions with peers during group activities.
  4. Write the start and stop times of each task on the board for Nathan and his classmates to refer to during group activities.
Answer
Correct Response: B.

Objective 018
Understand strategies for developing and implementing effective behavioral interventions for students with learning disabilities.

16. Mr. Kolinsky, an eighth-grade resource teacher of students with learning disabilities, is concerned about Jacqueline, a student in his morning reading class. In addition to learning disabilities related to basic reading skills and reading comprehension, Jacqueline has attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mr. Kolinsky notices that Jacqueline has recently begun disrupting class on a regular basis. Mr. Kolinsky discusses his observations with Jacqueline's parents and then arranges a meeting of her Individualized Education Program (IEP) team. The team decides to conduct a functional behavioral assessment. Which of the following steps should the team take first in conducting this assessment?

  1. arranging for Jacqueline to meet with the school counselor to discuss possible causes for her behavior
  2. interviewing all of Jacqueline's teachers to determine the extent to which she is exhibiting problematic behaviors
  3. having team members observe and record Jacqueline's behavior in various settings throughout the school day
  4. defining Jacqueline's problematic behaviors in concrete and measurable terms
Answer
Correct Response: D.

Objective 019
Understand strategies for promoting the functional living skills of students with learning disabilities.

17. A teacher of high school students with learning disabilities works with three students who will soon complete high school. Each of the students has reading difficulties related to a learning disability. The students need to learn to travel independently by bus to access programs and jobs within their community. Which of the following would likely be the most effective strategy for the teacher to use in addressing this goal?

  1. inviting a representative from the bus company to speak with the students and answer their questions about riding the bus
  2. providing an opportunity for each of the students to ride the bus from a bus stop near his or her home to a desired location and then having the students discuss this experience as a group
  3. having each student conduct an interview with an individual who uses the bus system on a regular basis
  4. using direct instruction to teach the students how to understand local bus schedules and routes and having the students practice using this information to access the city bus system
Answer
Correct Response: D.

WORKING IN THE PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT

Objective 021
Understand how to establish partnerships with other school personnel and community agencies to enhance learning opportunities for students with learning disabilities.

18. Which of the following best describes the primary responsibility of the school social worker in providing a comprehensive educational program for students with learning disabilities?

  1. connecting students and their families to resources in the home, school, and community that will best support students' learning
  2. assuming a leadership role in the development of students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
  3. determining if students and their families are eligible for related services provided by local, regional, and state agencies
  4. monitoring the effectiveness of the various components of students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 022
Understand the historical, social, and legal foundations of education for students with learning disabilities.

19. Learning disabilities emerged as a discrete classification in the field of special education primarily in response to:

  1. pressure to provide educa-tional services to children with unexpected patterns of general strengths and specific weaknesses in learning.
  2. research findings on the impact of environmental factors on children's ability to learn.
  3. technological advances that facilitated the detection of neurological dysfunction in children with learning difficulties.
  4. heightened societal interest in preventing learning problems in young children.
Answer
Correct Response: A.

Objective 023
Understand the professional, ethical, and legal roles and responsibilities involved in the education of students with learning disabilities.

20. Mr. Longman is a teacher of students with learning disabilities in an ele-mentary school. He is planning a staff development workshop for general education teachers at his school about effective instructional strategies to use with students who have learning disabilities. Mr. Longman plans to share some personal classroom experiences as examples to illustrate his points during the workshop. Which of the following guidelines should Mr. Longman follow when using such examples?

  1. Make sure not to disclose any identifying information about an individual student.
  2. Obtain permission from the school principal before presenting any examples from his current school.
  3. Ask attendees to sign an oath not to disclose any personal information given out at the workshop.
  4. Use only examples involving students who attended other elementary schools.
Answer
Correct Response: A.