Overview and Test Objectives
Field 085: Middle Level
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT) and paper-based test (PBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||The Nature of Early Adolescence||001–004||18%|
|II||Philosophy and School Organization||005–009||23%|
|III||Curriculum and Instructional Design||010–013||18%|
|IV||Pedagogy and Assessment||014–018||23%|
|V||Collaboration and Professional Development||019–022||18%|
Subarea I—THE NATURE OF EARLY ADOLESCENCE
Objective 001—Understand the characteristics of the developmental period of early adolescence and the needs of young adolescents.
- recognizing the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual needs and characteristics of young adolescents
- understanding developmental processes and patterns of early adolescence
- recognizing and understanding the educational implications of the developmental needs and characteristics of young adolescents
Objective 002—Understand factors that affect the development of young adolescents.
- recognizing how certain factors (e.g., changes in family settings, social contexts, threats to health and safety, risk behaviors) may affect young adolescents
- understanding the implications of these factors on student motivation, teaching, and student learning
Objective 003—Understand the significance of human diversity for the development and learning of young adolescents.
- recognizing types of diversity (e.g., ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, culture, language, exceptionality) and their educational implications
- understanding the importance of considering the familial, cultural, and societal contexts of individual students
- analyzing strategies for creating a school environment that values diversity, enhances understanding and respect for diversity, and is supportive of all students
Objective 004—Understand the relationship of young adolescent development to the school setting.
- connecting the knowledge of the nature of early adolescence and the needs and characteristics of young adolescents to the design and implementation of a supportive school environment, appropriate programs, and developmentally and culturally responsive practices
- analyzing the effects of school environments, programs, and practices on young adolescent development
Subarea II—PHILOSOPHY AND SCHOOL ORGANIZATION
Objective 005—Understand the philosophy and foundations of the middle school concept.
- understanding the historic development of the middle school movement and education programs for young adolescents
- understanding the research that supports the middle school concept
- analyzing the implications of this research for middle school organization and programs
Objective 006—Understand the role of teaming at the middle level.
- understanding the rationale for using team structure at the middle level
- recognizing the benefits of teaming
- evaluating the structures and functions of teams
- analyzing the roles and responsibilities of teachers in the teaming process
Objective 007—Understand teacher-based advisory relationships and programs at the middle level.
- understanding the rationale for and the organization and functions of advisory programs
- evaluating the roles and responsibilities of teachers and other school personnel in advisory relationships
Objective 008—Understand the use of flexible grouping and scheduling at the middle level.
- understanding the rationale for and benefits of using flexible grouping and scheduling in middle schools
- recognizing the teacher's active role in flexible grouping and scheduling
- analyzing factors (e.g., human and financial resources, organization, facilities, policies) that affect decisions about grouping and scheduling
Objective 009—Understand the characteristics and functions of exploration at the middle level.
- identifying types and characteristics of middle school exploratory programs (e.g., the fine and practical arts, health and physical education) and activity programs (e.g., community service, mini courses, clubs, intramurals)
- understanding the philosophy and functions of such programs
- recognizing the roles of teachers in such programs
- determining the types of programs to offer
Subarea III—CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
Objective 010—Understand how to create and implement a curriculum in the middle school.
- understanding the middle level curriculum as well as how it fits into the K–12 curriculum continuum
- recognizing factors that are important to consider in creating and implementing a middle school curriculum
- identifying resources that are helpful in creating a middle school curriculum
- recognizing elements that are important to include in a curriculum for young adolescents
Objective 011—Understand how to develop curriculum and instruction that emphasize the interconnected nature of knowledge.
- understanding the rationale for making interdisciplinary connections in curriculum and instruction at the middle level
- analyzing how the content and resources inherent in a subject area may contribute to students' understanding of other subject areas
- employ-ing strategies that help students make connections among different subject areas and facilitate integration of knowledge
Objective 012—Understand how to use student voice in the planning of curriculum and learning activities.
- understanding the importance of incorporating students' ideas, interests, and questions into the planning of curriculum and learning activities
- identifying and using strategies for determining students' ideas, interests, and questions
- using student input to construct curriculum and learning activities
Objective 013—Understand how to plan and adapt instruction that is responsive to individual learners.
- recognizing how learners differ (e.g., learning styles, language, culture, exceptionalities) and understanding the educational implications of these differences
- planning, modifying, and adapting instructional strategies, content, materials, and environments to accommodate students' needs
- identifying and taking advantage of students' strengths to promote learning
Subarea IV—PEDAGOGY AND ASSESSMENT
Objective 014—Understand that the basic concepts and skills of inquiry and communication are integral to all learning.
- identifying characteristics of and the rationale for using inquiry and communication as the basis for all learning
- identifying appropriate opportunities and selecting strategies for promoting students' inquiry skills (e.g., questioning, investigating, researching) and communication skills (e.g., reading, listening, writing, speaking) in all subject areas
Objective 015—Understand that cultivating problem-solving and critical-thinking skills is important for learning.
- identifying opportunities and selecting strategies for promoting young adolescents' problem-solving and critical-thinking skills
- recognizing factors (e.g., culture, past experiences, familiarity with the subject matter) that influence students as they solve problems and think critically
- helping students learn to use critical thinking and apply problem-solving strategies in various settings
Objective 016—Understand the purpose and use of various grouping strategies in the middle level classroom.
- identifying and evaluating various strategies for grouping students in the classroom
- selecting appropriate grouping strategies that emphasize interdependence, cooperation, and individual responsibilities in given situations
- understanding the educational impli-cations of using particular grouping strategies
Objective 017—Understand how to create and maintain a positive classroom environment that supports development and learning.
- applying strategies to create a classroom environment that accommodates young adolescents' needs and fosters positive relationships among young adolescents and adults
- creating a supportive climate that nurtures self-esteem
- understanding the important relationship between student engagement in learning and classroom management
Objective 018—Understand multiple strategies for the evaluation and assessment of development and learning.
- understanding basic assessment principles, concepts, and issues (e.g., validity, reliability, bias)
- selecting and implementing multiple evaluation and assessment strategies (e.g., observation, portfolio, peer assessment, standardized test) that accommodate students' needs
- interpreting and communicating assessment results
- using assessment results to make educational decisions regarding curriculum and teaching practice
Subarea V—COLLABORATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Objective 019—Understand the importance of and strategies for collaborating with families, resource persons, and community groups.
- understanding the importance of creating school–home/community partnerships to help achieve learning goals and to meet the needs of young adolescents
- recognizing factors that facilitate or impede the formation of strong partnerships
- knowing how to communicate and work effectively with families in various contexts (e.g., regular contacts, informal meetings, planned conferences)
- identifying and understanding how to work with resource persons or community groups
Objective 020—Understand the importance of and strategies for collaborating with colleagues.
- understanding and applying approaches for working collaboratively with team members and colleagues to achieve student learning goals, solve problems, and coordinate instruction
- recognizing the advantages of working collaboratively with other school personnel (e.g., teachers, administrators, paraprofessionals, counselors) in various situations
Objective 021—Understand methods and resources for advancing one's professional knowledge and practice.
- understanding the importance of self-reflection in teaching
- identifying and taking advantage of various professional development opportunities and resources (e.g., inservice programs, professional associations, continuing education)
- understanding strategies for working with other members of the school community (e.g., families, mentors, team members, administrators) to improve one's professional knowledge and practice
Objective 022—Understand the professional roles and responsibilities of middle level teachers.
- understanding the importance of demonstrating a commitment to young adolescents and to education that is academically excellent, developmentally responsive, and socially equitable
- understanding the roles and responsibilities of middle level teachers as advocates for young adolescents
- applying legal and ethical guidelines in various educational situations