Overview and Test Objectives
Field 043: Health
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT) and paper-based test (PBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Basic Health Concepts||001–005||26%|
|II||Health Skills and Behaviors||006–010||26%|
|III||School Health Education||011–015||26%|
Subarea I—BASIC HEALTH CONCEPTS
Objective 001—Understand the nature of and factors that affect physical health.
- how physical health is affected by positive and risky behaviors involving nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, use of alcohol or other drugs, sexual behaviors, and intentional and unintentional injury
- indicators of physical health
- the basic structures, functions, and interactions of human body systems
- ways in which health behaviors affect body systems
- interrelationships among physical, intellectual, emotional, and social health
- protective and risk factors (e.g., behaviors, environment, heredity) related to physical health
Objective 002—Understand the nature of and factors that affect mental and emotional health.
- how mental and emotional health are affected by positive and risky behaviors involving nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, use of alcohol or other drugs, sexual behaviors, and intentional and unintentional injury
- indicators of mental and emotional health
- sources, signs, and symptoms of stress
- the nature of depression
- protective and risk factors (e.g., behaviors, environment, heredity) related to suicide and mental and emotional health
Objective 003—Understand the nature of and factors that affect social health.
- how social health is affected by positive and risky behaviors involving nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, use of alcohol or other drugs, sexual behaviors, and intentional and unintentional injury
- indicators of social health
- benefits, challenges, and dynamics of family and peer relationships
- techniques for developing and maintaining positive relationships
- characteristics of responsible friendship and family membership
- the responsibilities of parenthood
- the nature and importance of social support systems
- common sources of conflict and methods of conflict resolution
- the role of communication in interpersonal relationships
- protective and risk factors (e.g., behaviors, environment, heredity) related to social health
Objective 004—Understand health effects of healthy and risky behaviors.
- the relationship between positive health behaviors (e.g., balanced diet, regular physical activity) and the prevention of injury, illness, disease, and other health problems
- factors that affect decisions relating to health behaviors (e.g., cultural norms, peer pressure)
- myths and misinformation relating to health behaviors
- common health risks associated with sexual behavior (e.g., HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections)
- methods of delaying or avoiding pregnancy
- common health risks associated with use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
Objective 005—Understand the nature of and factors that affect consumer and community health.
- the effects of technology on health
- how messages and information from media and other sources affect personal and family health behaviors (e.g., selection of health-related products and services), thoughts, and feelings
- the influence of cultural beliefs on health behaviors and the use of health services
- characteristics and sources of health care products and services
- how family, peers, the community, and the environment influence the health of people in a community
Subarea II—HEALTH SKILLS AND BEHAVIORS
Objective 006—Understand strategies for planning for and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
- methods for creating and evaluating a personal health assessment to determine strategies for health enhancement and risk reduction
- strategies for improving personal, family, and community health
- injury prevention and management strategies for personal and family health
- ways to avoid threatening situations and reduce conflict
- strategies for stress management
- methods for accessing and evaluating health information, products, services, and resources
Objective 007—Understand problem-solving, decision-making, and goal-setting processes and skills.
- approaches to individual and collaborative problem-solving, decision-making, and goal-setting processes related to health issues and problems
- techniques for implementing and evaluating a plan for achieving a personal health goal, including predicting outcomes of health decisions
- sources of assistance in making health-related decisions
- the role of individual, family, community, and cultural values in the decision-making process related to health issues
- immediate and long-term effects of health decisions on the individual, family, community, and environment
- strategies and skills needed to attain personal health goals
Objective 008—Understand effective communication and health advocacy skills.
- factors that affect interpersonal communication
- effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills
- characteristics of active listening
- communication skills for building and maintaining healthy relationships
- strategies that encourage effective communication
- methods for communicating care, consideration, empathy, and respect for self and others
- refusal and negotiation skills that enhance health
- adaptation of health messages and communication techniques to the characteristics of a particular audience
- evaluation of the effectiveness of communication methods for accurately expressing health information and ideas
- approaches for expressing information and opinions about health issues
- strategies for working cooperatively with others to advocate for healthy individuals, families, and communities
- methods for influencing and supporting others in making positive health choices
Objective 009—Understand strategies used to recognize, avoid, and manage health and safety risks.
- methods that promote self-assessment of behavioral risk factors
- ways of distinguishing between safe, risky, and harmful behaviors in relationships
- strategies for nonviolent conflict resolution and the prevention of injury and violence
- strategies for the prevention of alcohol, tobacco, and drug use, misuse, and abuse
Objective 010—Understand theories of behavior change and principles of health promotion.
- characteristics of various models and theories relating to health behavior (e.g., social learning theory, health belief models, resiliency research)
- the roles of knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, perception of risk, motivation, and environmental support in changing behavior, as defined in generally accepted research
- behaviors that tend to promote or compromise health
- social and personal factors influencing health behaviors (e.g., family, peers, media, culture, religion, environment, technology, and community norms)
Subarea III—SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION
Objective 011—Understand the assessment of individual and group needs for school-based health education.
- instruments and techniques for gathering needs-assessment data (e.g., surveys, focus groups, interviews)
- methods for obtaining health-related data about the social and cultural environments, growth and development factors, needs, and interests of young people
- valid and current sources of information and data
- analysis and interpretation of needs-assessment data
- the use of data to determine priority areas of need for health education
- the use of data to guide health education planning and instruction
Objective 012—Understand district, state, and federal laws and policies that affect health education.
- ways to access resources related to federal, state, and district laws, policies, and regulations
- the identification and application of Michigan law regarding school health education
- the role of the district in setting policies and procedures regarding school health education, especially in human sexuality education
- the evaluation of existing procedures for compliance with school policy and state law
Objective 013—Understand school health education program planning.
- sources of information and resources related to school health programs (e.g., regional school health coordinator) that can help in program planning
- strategies for obtaining commitments from and involving stakeholders (e.g., students, parents/guardians, school personnel, school board, community members, school health advisory board)
- the use of the school health advisory board or other representative groups within the district (e.g., school board, parent teacher association, sexuality education advisory council) to seek ideas and opinions of stakeholders
- the use of a team-based approach for collaborative planning among school district personnel and community agencies with mutual interests
- the incorporation into the planning process of recommendations that support best practice
- the importance of schoolwide, cross-curricular program planning that focuses on the healthy development of young people
Objective 014—Understand strategies for collaborating with others to implement a coordinated school health program.
- the interdependence of the components of a coordinated school health program (i.e., health education, physical education, food service, counseling and mental health services, school environment, staff wellness and health promotion, parent and community involvement, and health services)
- advantages of coordinating school health programs and services
- school services that can be used to enhance healthy development
- approaches for integrating health education within existing school district programs
- methods for determining the extent to which instruction across the curriculum addresses health issues and identifying gaps and overlaps in the provision of coordinated school health programs
- strategies for communicating effectively with students, family members, school personnel, and community health professionals within a team approach
- collaboration with school district and community agencies to provide effective school health education programs and activities
Objective 015—Understand the selection and use of curricula, strategies, and materials for health instruction.
- identification of appropriate instructional materials and strategies to address health education content
- factors that influence the selection of health education curricula, strategies, and materials
- ways to assist students in making learning connections between health instruction and other curricular areas
- types, techniques, and uses of student evaluation in health education
Subarea IV—PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
Objective 016—Understand the school health teacher's roles as an advocate for young people and a teacher of other staff, parents/guardians, and community members.
- methods of advocating for and implementing school policies that foster the health, wellness, and safety of young people
- strategies the health teacher can use to advocate effectively for the health program with students, school personnel, school board, community members, and parents/guardians (e.g., communicating about the effects of health on learning)
- the teacher's role as a liaison between school staff, the school health advisory board, and community resource groups
- the planning and presentation of health information to an adult audience and the use of instructional resources that meet a variety of adult learning needs
- strategies for dealing with controversial health issues
- the role of the health teacher in modeling positive health behaviors and serving as a role model for students and staff
Objective 017—Understand educational and informational resources associated with health education.
- the identification of accurate available health education resources and the processes for accessing those resources
- resources and information available from professional organizations for health teachers
- the effective use of technology in accessing accurate health information
- considerations in evaluating the worth and applicability of resource materials for given audiences
- ways to match and access resources for specific health needs
- selection and organization of educational materials
Objective 018—Understand the school health teacher's role as a resource person.
- interpretation of requests for health information and services
- approaches for referring students, parents/guardians, and staff to accurate health information sources and appropriate services
- appropriate methods for distributing health education materials
- the health teacher's role as a liaison between the school and health service organizations, including consumer groups
- strategies and skills (e.g., listening, problem solving, communicating respectfully, being approachable) for consulting effectively with those requesting assistance with health concerns
- the significance of the health teacher's modeling of the conflict resolution strategies that are taught to students
- appropriate limits of consulting regarding health concerns, including knowing when and how to refer for specialized services
- appropriate handling of student disclosure by supporting the student, maintaining confidentiality, observing district policy and state law, and reporting, when required by state law, to the appropriate agency
Objective 019—Understand the foundations of school health education.
- the concepts, purposes, and theories of the discipline of school health education
- evaluation of the state of the art in school health education
- the role of health education in the K–12 core curriculum
- the influence of societal value systems (e.g., opposing viewpoints regarding health education needs) on school health education programs