Overview and Test Objectives
Field 011: Psychology
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
|Time||2 hours 30 minutes*|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Foundations, Skills, and Methods||001–006||21%|
|IV||Personality Theories and Psychological Disorders||020–024||18%|
Subarea I—FOUNDATIONS, SKILLS, AND METHODS
Objective 001—Understand the historical development of major ideas in psychology.
- demonstrating familiarity with the roots of psychology
- recognizing major individuals, events, and trends
- defining major models of psychology, their limitations, and their interrelationships
- analyzing the significance of these topics in terms of contemporary psychology
Objective 002—Understand roles, issues, and goals in contemporary psychology.
- demonstrating familiarity with the function of psychology in contemporary society
- examining the types and characteristics of mental health practitioners and services including benefits, criticisms, and limitations
- examining ethical guidelines and standards
- analyzing consumer issues related to selection of and access to mental health services
Objective 003—Apply social science study skills related to psychology.
- demonstrating familiarity with the characteristics and uses of resource materials available in psychology
- analyzing sources of information
- deriving information from visual sources such as graphs, charts, and tables
- summarizing information from a written selection
- assessing the validity of generalizations and conclusions
Objective 004—Apply principles and techniques used in designing and conducting psychological research projects.
- applying skills used in posing questions, developing theories, and stating hypotheses
- determining the order of steps in a research project
- recognizing the characteristics of a sound research project
- recognizing appropriate methods and techniques for collecting information (e.g., interviews, surveys, case studies) and choosing subjects
- demonstrating familiarity with ethical issues related to research in the field
- compiling, organizing, and interpreting data and information
- drawing conclusions
Objective 005—Understand psychological measurement instruments and techniques.
- demonstrating familiarity with major individuals, terms, and concepts associated with psychological testing
- examining characteristics, purposes, and limitations of various common psychological tests (e.g., personality, intelligence)
- analyzing issues, criticisms, and controversies related to the use of psychological tests and test results
Objective 006—Understand contemporary therapeutic and counseling techniques and theories.
- recognizing conflict resolution and problem-solving strategies
- identifying different techniques and applications of contemporary counseling approaches (e.g., reality therapy, family therapy, grief therapy)
Subarea II—HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Objective 007—Analyze the effects of heredity and environment on human development.
- demonstrating familiarity with theories related to the nature-nurture issue
- distinguishing between inherited and acquired traits (e.g., gender differences)
- examining techniques used to study the effect of heredity on human development and the relationship between human development and the environment
- analyzing the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of various human traits and behaviors
Objective 008—Apply knowledge of the prenatal and infancy stages of development.
- demonstrating familiarity with the physical development of the fetus and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on fetal survival and development
- using knowledge of human development to examine physical, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional changes experienced during infancy
- analyzing biological and environmental factors that affect development during infancy
Objective 009—Apply knowledge of development during childhood.
- using knowledge of human development to examine physical, cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and moral changes experienced during early and middle childhood
- examining biological factors and environmental factors (e.g., family structures, parenting style, peer groups) that affect development at these stages
- analyzing influences specific to self-esteem
Objective 010—Apply knowledge of development during adolescence.
- using knowledge of human development to examine physical, cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and moral changes experienced during adolescence
- analyzing biological and environmental factors that affect development at this stage
Objective 011—Apply knowledge of development during adulthood.
- using knowledge of human development to examine physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and moral changes experienced during early, middle, and late adulthood
- analyzing biological and environmental factors related to adult development and aging
- demonstrating familiarity with issues and tasks related to adulthood (e.g., relationships, work, child rearing, loss, adjustments)
Objective 012—Understand the biological bases of behavior.
- identifying the major components, structures, and functions of the nervous system and the endocrine system
- analyzing biological influences underlying behavior and the reasons this information is useful in studying psychology
Objective 013—Apply knowledge of sensation and perception.
- using knowledge of the major sense organs and neuropathways to the brain to explain how humans filter and respond to various stimuli
- demonstrating familiarity with how humans organize, interpret, and analyze information received through the sense organs
- distinguishing between the process of sensation and the process of perception
- analyzing factors that affect sensation and perception
Objective 014—Apply knowledge of states of consciousness.
- defining consciousness
- distinguishing between different states of consciousness
- analyzing the stages and characteristics of sleep and dreams
- understanding uses of hypnosis and meditation
- examining the effects of illicit and licit drug use on an individual's state of consciousness
Objective 015—Apply basic principles of learning.
- using principles of learning and conditioning to examine the relationship between stimuli and responses
- distinguishing between classical and operant conditioning and between conditioning and cognitive approaches to learning
- analyzing methods for bringing about behavioral change
Objective 016—Apply knowledge of memory.
- using knowledge of memory to examine how information is encoded, stored, and retrieved
- analyzing processes used to recall information
- recognizing theories regarding memory loss
- identifying techniques and methods used to improve memory
Objective 017—Apply knowledge of cognition and language.
- using knowledge of cognition to examine the processes of thinking, reasoning, and making decisions
- analyzing concept formation, approaches to problem solving, and factors that affect cognitive abilities and promote creativity
- demonstrating familiarity with the structure of language and theories of language acquisition
- analyzing relationships between language and thought
Objective 018—Apply knowledge of theories of motivation.
- using theories of motivation to examine the processes that underlie and activate behavior
- demonstrating familiarity with human needs
- analyzing behavior motivated by a combination of biological and learned factors
Objective 019—Understand types and characteristics of human emotion.
- using theories of emotion to examine the causes and effects of various emotions
- demonstrating familiarity with physiological and behavioral changes that accompany various emotional states
Subarea IV—PERSONALITY THEORIES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
Objective 020—Apply knowledge of psychoanalytic theories of personality.
- demonstrating familiarity with psychoanalytic theories of personality and theorists associated with them
- using concepts and terms associated with psychoanalytic theories to examine differences in personality
- distinguishing between Freudian and neo-Freudian theories of personality and analyzing their strengths and limitations
Objective 021—Apply knowledge of trait, learning, and humanistic theories of personality.
- demonstrating familiarity with trait, learning, and humanistic theories of personality, theorists associated with them, and how they are distinct from psychoanalytic theories
- using concepts and approaches associated with trait, learning, and humanistic theories to analyze differences in personality
- examining the strengths and limitations of various theories
Objective 022—Apply knowledge of frustration, conflict, and other forms of stress.
- demonstrating familiarity with types, causes, and stages of stress
- recognizing how individuals use defense and coping mechanisms
- analyzing the varying effects of the same type of stress on different personalities
- examining the relationships between psychological and physical health
Objective 023—Apply knowledge of abnormal behavior.
- demonstrating familiarity with the types, causes, and characteristics of mild and severe behavioral/emotional disorders and personality disorders
- recognizing models used to explain and diagnose them
- evaluating criticisms and controversies associated with the categorization of individuals
Objective 024—Understand approaches to the treatment of psychological disorders.
- identifying characteristics and goals of psychotherapy and biologically based therapy
- recognizing basic types of psychotherapy and the psychological models associated with them
- understanding uses of biological treatment
Subarea V—SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Objective 025—Understand the nature of groups, group behavior, and self-concept.
- analyzing types, structures, and functions of groups
- examining social and cultural factors that influence the formation of self-concept
- recognizing the effects of group membership on individuals
- understanding the interaction between an individual's self-concept and social relationships
Objective 026—Apply knowledge of processes and factors related to attitude formation and attribution.
- demonstrating familiarity with the components of attitude
- processes through which attitudes are formed, maintained, and changed
- recognizing concepts and processes related to attribution
- analyzing how stereotypes, propaganda, various forms of bias (e.g., culture and gender), and related social factors influence attitude formation and the impressions and judgments one individual forms about another
- defining the relationships between an individual's personality traits and attitude and attribution
Objective 027—Apply knowledge of factors and processes related to norms, persuasion, and conformity.
- demonstrating familiarity with the influences of group membership, social and cultural norms, and group dynamics on individual behavior
- analyzing methods used to bring about conformity and compliance
- evaluating techniques individuals use to remain independent of group pressures
- defining the relationship between cognitive dissonance and individual behavior
- examining issues and controversies related to gender roles and social norms
Objective 028—Apply knowledge of major forms of social interaction.
- recognizing altruism, aggression, accommodation, cooperation, and competition and the factors that influence these behaviors
- demonstrating familiarity with forms of social communication and with types and levels of attraction