Overview and Test Objectives
Field 003: Journalism
|Format||Computer-based test (CBT)|
|Number of Questions||100 multiple-choice questions|
|Time||2 hours 30 minutes*|
*Does not include 15-minute CBT tutorial
|Subarea||Range of Objectives||Approximate Percentage of Questions on Test|
|I||Mass Media and Communication||001–004||23%|
|II||Writing, Editing, and Reporting||005–010||33%|
|III||Graphics, Design, and Production of Media||011–014||22%|
|IV||Student Press and Publications||015–018||22%|
Subarea I—MASS MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION
Objective 001—Understand the history and evolution of mass media.
- significant people and events in mass media history
- the history and evolution of print journalism and its contributions to U.S. society
- major events in the development of television and radio broadcasting and the Web
- ways that electronic media, including the Internet, have changed journalism
Objective 002—Understand the functions, limitations, and influence of media and journalists.
- the role of the press in this country and the role that news media plays in a democratic society
- the journalist as gatekeeper in society
- the journalist's role as reporter and as commentator on social issues
- the meaning of and limitations on freedom of the press, including the media's self-imposed limitations
Objective 003—Analyze ethical issues and legal rights and responsibilities related to media.
- the application of the First Amendment to print and electronic media
- the pursuit of truth and accuracy
- issues related to censorship, libel, privacy, obscenity, and the protection of sources and the way these issues can influence journalistic decisions
- laws and precedents concerning copyright and plagiarism
- the effects of Supreme Court decisions related to scholastic journalism (e.g., Tinker v. Des Moines; Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier)
- issues related to bias, objectivity, persuasion, and propaganda
Objective 004—Identify career opportunities in mass media.
- knowledge of the various occupations and positions available in media (e.g., advertising, broadcasting, photojournalism, graphics, and public relations)
- ways to help students identify the personal characteristics suited for careers in journalism or related fields
- the guidance of students in the creation of a career portfolio of their work
Subarea II—WRITING, EDITING, AND REPORTING
Objective 005—Understand forms of writing for print and broadcast journalism.
- characteristics and functions of straight news writing, feature writing, opinion writing, and news analysis
- methods of story organization (e.g., inverted pyramid, chronological)
- characteristics of various lead formats (e.g., summary, feature)
Objective 006—Understand techniques of writing for print and broadcast journalism.
- principles for creating headlines
- the uses of accurate quotations, appropriate paraphrasing, and suitable attribution
- the importance of using multiple sources
- ways in which language use, angle, and style are matched for an intended audience
Objective 007—Apply elements of journalistic style and editing skills.
- copy editing for accuracy, content, and style
- applying grammar, spelling, punctuation, usage, diction, and other language conventions correctly
- understanding how word processing technology can be used for editorial purposes (e.g., manipulating text, spell checking)
Objective 008—Understand the news values that influence media decisions.
- the media's responsibilities to audiences
- audience characteristics and expectations
- the importance of specific characteristics of a story (e.g., impact, proximity, timeliness, prominence, uniqueness) for establishing news value
- the difference between hard news and soft news
- methods for fostering students' development of critical-thinking skills
- methods for critiquing and evaluating media
Objective 009—Understand research sources and technologies.
- recognizing and evaluating sources of news
- understanding the functions of news bureaus, press releases and conferences, and public relations activities
- locating, assessing, and summarizing information from a variety of sources
- comparing, contrasting, and evaluating different texts
- applying techniques of on-line research
- obtaining background information prior to an interview
- understanding ways in which journalistic endeavors (e.g., questioning, reporting, writing) are integrated
Objective 010—Understand interviewing techniques.
- recognizing ways to listen and observe in order to understand and learn
- recognizing a speaker's attitude, tone, and bias
- taking and transcribing notes accurately
- identifying strategies for conducting telephone and in-person interviews
- promoting students' effective use of oral and written literacy skills
Subarea III—GRAPHICS, DESIGN, AND PRODUCTION OF MEDIA
Objective 011—Understand techniques and equipment for taking, processing, and editing photographs.
- the characteristics and functions of photographic equipment
- various photographic techniques
- image processing
- principles of photocomposition
- criteria for selecting photographs (e.g., sound content, composition, technical qualities)
- the major functions of photographs in publications
- cropping techniques
- caption/cutline writing principles
Objective 012—Understand publication design and layout.
- the basic principles and elements of design (e.g., multiple points of entry, visual storytelling, packaging)
- types and styles of layouts (e.g., modular, columnar, grid) and the functions they serve
- ways to ensure consistency of design throughout a publication
Objective 013—Understand characteristics and functions of visual elements.
- the functions of visual elements in print and electronic media design
- the various uses of visual images and color
- the use of graphic devices such as line, screen, art, and typography to communicate and emphasize a topic
- procedures for generating computer graphics
- strategies for fostering students' visual literacy skills
Objective 014—Understand uses of computer technology in media production.
- the use of electronic technology for the production of media
- the uses of desktop publishing software
- the advantages and limitations of desktop publishing
Subarea IV—STUDENT PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS
Objective 015—Understand the evaluation, formats, and functions of student media.
- methods for critiquing student media
- formats for various student media
- balanced coverage and content of student media
- functions of student media (e.g., inform, entertain, persuade, teach)
Objective 016—Understand planning and management for student media.
- editorial management and classroom management strategies
- staff selection and media content that reflects the student population
- collaborative efforts in the production process
- the roles of student editorial boards
- student and district media policies
Objective 017—Understand the role of business and advertising in media.
- typical expenses and revenue sources for media
- managing budgets and marketing media products
- methods for planning and implementing an effective advertising sales program
- the role advertising plays in the production of media
- types and functions of advertisements
- elements involved in designing advertisements and writing advertising copy
Objective 018—Understand the roles and responsibilities of the student media adviser.
- helping students understand the power of the media and encouraging them to take responsibility for their learning and production of media
- supporting students' First Amendment rights
- promoting students' appreciation of and engagement in a wide variety of media
- employing and modeling the use of technology as an essential component of learning and production of media
- promoting collegiality with other journalism professionals
- recognizing the characteristics and functions of professional organizations (e.g., Michigan Interscholastic Press Association, Journalism Education Association, Student Press Law Center, Quill and Scroll)